Chapter 1 A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF PSYCHOLOGY 1.1 Define psychology. Describe the nature and scope of psychology Introduction This is the introductory lecture where some important terms are defined to provide a foundation for the learning of the course. The Nature and Scope of Psychology Psychology is a science. It is a science that studies behaviour […]Read More 1.1 General Psychology: What is psychology? What is the nature and scope of psychology?
Chapter 1 A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF PSYCHOLOGY 1.2 Explain the growth of psychology Growth of Psychology: Historical Perspective Psychology as a scientific discipline is relatively new. It evolved from Philosophy, Physiology and Biology. It was considered a part of the Philosophy Department in most universities and it became an independent discipline in the 19th Century. […]Read More 1.2 General Psychology: Can you explain the growth of psychology?
Chapter 2 Introduction to Learning 2.1 Define Learning. Explain the relevance of learning Introduction In this lecture, we will describe learning. We will discuss the relevance of learning, factors influencing learning and describe some theories of learning. Definition & Relevance of Learning Learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour as a result of […]Read More 2.1 General Psychology: What is learning? What is its relevance? What are the different types of learning?
2.2 Examine the use of Operant conditioning in the classroom 2.3 Compare and contrast between Classical Learning and Operant Learning Use of Operant Conditioning in the Classroom `1. Controlling behaviour by using positive reinforcement Operant conditioning can be used instead of punishment when controlling behaviour. Most behaviour occurring in the school situation is voluntary. The […]Read More 2.2 General Psychology: How is Operant conditioning used in the classroom? What’s the difference between Classical Learning and Operant Learning?
2.3 Explore the characteristics of Operant Conditioning Characteristics of Operant (Instrumental) Conditioning Reinforcement There are two types of reinforcement in operant conditioning. These are positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement. Positive rein forcers are stimuli that strengthen responses that precede them for example the food given to the rat in the Skinner box is a positive […]Read More 2.3 General Psychology: What are the characteristics of Operant Conditioning?
Chapter 3 MOTIVATION 3.1 Define motivation 3.2 Describe the motivation cycle Introduction In this lecture, we will look at motivation and how it influences our lives. We will also discuss how we can apply some of the theories of motivation in the education sector. Introduction to Motivation Definition of the term motivation: Motivation is […]Read More 3.1 General Psychology: What does motivation and the motivation cycle mean?
2.4 Describe the experiments Pavlov did Classical conditioning This is a simple form of learning in which one stimulus comes to bring forth the response usually brought forth by a second stimulus being paired repeatedly with the second stimulus. This type of earning was first studied by a Russian named Ivan Pavlov. Pavlov’s studies which […]Read More 2.4 General Psychology: Can you describe the experiments Pavlov did?
3.2 Explain the Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Abraham Maslow (1908 to 1970) believed that human beings are born with weak instincts which become specific needs. If these needs are not satisfied then they will control the individuals’ personalities. These needs will therefore influence human motivation for example, if a person is […]Read More 3.2 General Psychology:Do you understand the Maslow Hierarchy of Needs?
Chapter 4 FRUSTRATION AND CONFLICT 4.1 Name some sources of frustration Introduction In this Chapter, we are going to look at some sources of frustration and conflict. We will also discuss the effects of both short term and long term frustration that is, how people try to deal with frustration. Definition of Frustration This […]Read More 4.1 General Psychology: What are the causes, sources & types of frustration?
Chapter 5 PERSONALITY 5.1 Describe some factors that influence personality development Introduction In this Chapter, we look at some of the factors influencing personality development. We shall also describe the various types of personalities that are in existence and also illustrate the five basic personality traits. Factors Influencing Personality Development The two main factors that […]Read More 5.1 General Psychology: What are some factors that influence personality development?
5.2 Evaluate the implication of information on the role of hereditary, environmental and individual characteristics. Implication of Information on Role of Hereditary, Environmental and Individual Characteristics The knowledge about hereditary and environmental factors affecting our personalities enables us realize that we are who we are or we have the sort of personalities we have due […]Read More 5.2 General Psychology: What is the implication of information on the role of hereditary, environmental and individual characteristics in children?
5.3 Describe the five basic personality traits Five Basic Personality Traits The five basic personality traits that will be discussed in this chapter are: Openness (O) Conscientiousness (C) Extraversion (E) Agreeableness (A) Neuroticism (N) These traits were proposed by Robert McCrae and Paul Costa (1987). The five traits are also sometimes called the Big […]Read More 5.3 General Psychology: Do you know the five basic personality traits?
5.4 Name some personality types Personality Types and Temperaments We generally talk about Type A and Type B personalities. However, it is important to note that there is also a Type AB mixed personality that is, there are some people who have a combination of both Type A and Type B personalities. Type A Personalities […]Read More 5.4 General Psychology: What are some of the personality types?
5.5 Name some personality types Personality Types and Temperaments We generally talk about Type A and Type B personalities. However, it is important to note that there is also a Type AB mixed personality that is, there are some people who have a combination of both Type A and Type B personalities. Type A Personalities […]Read More 5.5 General Psychology: What are some of the personality types?
Chapter 6 SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 6.1 Distinguish between sensation and perception Introduction In this Chapter, we will discuss sensation and perceptions. We will distinguish between these two concepts then give a description of how sensation can be measure and some factors which influence human perception. Distinction between Perception and Sensation Perception is the ability to […]Read More 6.1 General Psychology: Can you distinguish between sensation and perception?
6.2 Describe how we can measure sensation Measurement of Sensation 1. Absolute threshold in sensation This is the weakest stimulus that any sensory system can detect; it is the smallest amount of physical energy that will produce a sensation. Our senses respond to quite low levels of stimulation for example out vision – we […]Read More 6.2 General Psychology: How can we measure sensation?
Chapter 7 INTELLIGENCE 7.1 Discuss the characteristics of a good intelligence test and the difficulties one may encounter when using intelligence tests Introduction In this Chapter, we will discuss intelligence. We will look briefly at some characteristics of good intelligence tests and discuss the long running debate as to whether it is heredity or the […]Read More 7.1 General Psychology: What is intelligence and what are the characteristics of a good intelligence test?
Chapter 8 GROUP DYNAMICS AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR 8.1 Describe the determinants of social behaviour Introduction In this Chapter we will examine group dynamics and social behaviour. We will talk about some of the determinants of social behaviour which include social influence among others. We will also discuss the nature of groups and how others can […]Read More 8.1 General Psychology: What are the determinants of social behavior?
Explain the nature of groups. Why do people join groups Nature of Groups Definition: A group can be described as two or more people who interact with and influence each other The group is held together by the common interests or goals of its members, who recognize some degree of affiliation or connection with […]Read More 8.2 General Psychology: Do you understand the nature of groups? Why do people join groups?
8.3 Discuss how others can influence an individual’s behaviour Influence of Others on Individual’s Behaviour Conformity – people feel pressure to fit in with the crowd and to be accepted by doing what is expected of them for example, a student may go for his first Chapter at the university wearing a three piece suit […]Read More 8.3 General Psychology:How can others influence an individual’s behavior?
Chapter 1 1.1 Explain the objectives of the course on East African Poetry & Drama Overall objectives of the course on East African Poetry & Drama It is expected that by the end of the lessons in this course, you should be able to do the following: Demonstrate an understanding of the concrete presence of […]Read More 1.1 East African Poetry & Drama: What are some of the objectives of the course on East African Poetry & Drama?
EAST AFRICAN POETRY Chapter 2 Poetry in the Pre-colonial East Africa 2.1 Analyze and appreciate the pre-colonial East African poetic forms as poetry in their own right. Introduction It is often argued that Africans never had poetry. However when you critically look at the activities that Africans engaged in, you will find enough aspects […]Read More 2.1 East African Poetry & Drama: Do you understand the institute of ritual poetry in East Africa?
Chapter 3 Poetry that Praises African Culture 3.1 Name some of the writers who have written texts praising African culture 3.1.1 Evaluate elements that make African culture rich Introduction Creative writers have sought to argue through their works the superiority of the African cultures against foreign cultures on the African soil. This has […]Read More 3.1 East African Poetry & Drama: Who are some of the most famous African writers? What makes African Culture rich?
Chapter 4 East African written Poetry: A Stylo-thematic Analysis of Selected Short Poems. (Part I) 4.1 Categorize poems in any anthology Introduction This lesson and the subsequent one are specifically designed to look at some of the written short poems in East Africa as a way of helping you appreciate poetry from this region. […]Read More 4.1 East African Poetry & Drama: Can you provide an anthological classification of poems? Do you know the various poetic devices?
Chapter 4 East African Written Poetry: A Stylo-thematic 4.2 Discuss the ways of the world poem by Richard Mabala all the while locating features of style and their functions. The Ways of the World by Richard Mabala In the previous poem, we have seen the poetic persona, a son, who is proud to carry on […]Read More 4.2 East African Poetry & Drama: Do you understand the ways of the world poem by Richard Mabala?
Chapter 5 East African Written Poetry A Stylo-thematic Analysis of selected Short Poems. (Part II) 5.1 Name at least three poems on economy in the selected anthology, Introduction This lesson is a continuation of the previous one. You will remember that I classified the poems in Amateshe’s anthology into three i.e. poems on social […]Read More 5.1 East African Poetry & Drama: Do you know the various stylo-thematic aspects & poetic devices of poems?
Chapter 5 East African Written Poetry 5.2 Define the term political poems, and list at least three political poems in the selected anthology discussing their respective tone, mood and attitude as integral elements of the corresponding poems. POLITICAL POEMS These are poems that respond to human activities associated with governance and leadership […]Read More 5.2 East African Poetry & Drama: What are political poems? Can you discuss their specific elements?
SECTION TWO: EAST AFRICAN DRAMA Chapter 6 Drama in Pre-Colonial East Africa 6.1 Appreciate the pre-colonial East African dramatic forms as drama in their own right. Introduction When we talk of drama in pre-colonial East Africa we mean those expressions of drama that the early people of East Africa engaged in before the white man […]Read More 6.1 East African Poetry & Drama: How was Drama in Pre-Colonial East Africa?
Chapter 7 Drama in Colonial East Africa 7.1 Identify the expressions of drama encouraged by colonialists in East Africa Introduction In this lesson effort is made to look at the forms of drama in East Africa which the Europeans employed or encouraged during their colonial rule. Therefore we shall limit our discussions on the period […]Read More 7.1 East African Poetry & Drama: Do you know the various expressions of drama encouraged by colonialists in East Africa?
Chapter 8 Anti-colonial Drama in East Africa 8.1 Write a brief history of events that led to Mau Mau uprising in Kenya. Introduction After East African countries had attained independence, some writers sought to write plays and poetry about the events and personalities that had denounced and fought against colonialism. The texts also condemned […]Read More 8.1 East African Poetry & Drama: Do you understand the history of Anti-colonial Drama in East Africa?
Chapter 8 8.2 Explain the relationship between the History of Maji Maji and the play Kinjeketile. Literary analysis of Kinjeketile by Ebrahim Hussein Introduction This is a fine example of a play written in an African language spoken in over five countries of the continent. It was originally written in and performed in Swahili […]Read More 8.2 East African Poetry & Drama: Can you give a Literary analysis of Kinjeketile by Ebrahim Hussein?
Chapter 9 The Travelling Theatre in East Africa 9.1 Identify the role played by universities across East Africa in advancing the practice of Drama and poetry in East Africa. 9.1.1 List some of the activities that members of the travelling theatres engaged in. Introduction The crucial problem that has faced East African literary artists is […]Read More 9.1 East African Poetry & Drama: What is the role played by universities across East Africa in advancing the practice of Drama and poetry in East Africa?
Chapter 9 The Travelling Theatre in East Africa 9.2 Enumerate the major stages of development of the Kenya Schools and Colleges Drama Festival. Kenya Schools and Colleges Drama Festivals Therefore this was a period of experimentation and it was proved that the use of traditional Dramatic forms added freshness to the Western Dramatic forms. The […]Read More 9.2 East African Poetry & Drama: What are the major stages of development of the Kenya Schools and Colleges Drama Festival?
Chapter 10 Drama for Development 10.1 Define Theatre for Development and Drama for Development. 10.1.1 Discuss the reason why literature needs to respond to the issues of the society that creates it. Introduction We are aware of Theatre for Development (TfD) because it is the one we hear most of the time. This is a […]Read More 10.1 East African Poetry & Drama: What is drama for development? Does literature need to respond to the issues of the society that creates it?
Chapter 11 Political Drama in East Africa 11.1 Summarise the political events in Kenya that led to the writing of The Successor Introduction Since independence the East African region has had a tumultuous political situations ranging from revolts to military takeovers. Many innocent people have suffered in that process. Political developments have been varied in […]Read More 11.1 East African Poetry & Drama: Do you know the prominent East African Political Dramas?
Chapter 11 11.2 Analyse the text Shreds of Tenderness SHREDS OF TENDERNESS Originally published under the title Music Without Tears in 1985, Shreds of Tenderness explores the historical period just after Idd Amin Dada’s regime had been overthrown in a coup of a combined force of the UNLF and Tanzanian Military troops. Amin’s government had […]Read More 11.2 East African Poetry & Drama: How well do you understand the text Shreds of Tenderness?
Chapter I 1.1 Provide an description of the basis of phonetics and phonology Introduction: The Focus of Phonetics and Phonology The basis of phonetics and phonology Both phonetics and phonology deal with human speech sounds whose production is effected by a combination of three major features. The three features are referred to as the dimensions […]Read More 1.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: Can you describe the basis of phonetics and phonology?
Chapter 2 2.1 Discuss the different analytic approaches in the context of Phonetic and Phonological Analysis Different Analytic Approaches Segmentation Speech is a continuum with few points in the stream which constitute a) Natural breaks – to breath in, swallow, and cough. b) Breaks that show an articulatory, auditory or acoustically steady state that could serve […]Read More 2.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: What are the different analytic approaches in the context of Phonetic and Phonological Analysis?
Chapter 3 3.1 Outline the Phonetic features of a speech sound Phonetic Analyses Phonetic Analysis This refers to the analyses of sound production and perception. Phonetics analyses human speech sounds in terms of the following: The speech sounds’ production The speech sounds’ description The different possible sounds depending on the human vocal organs The speech […]Read More 3.1 Can you outline the Phonetic features of a speech sound?
Chapter 4 4.1 Define the term phonology and the structure and function of sounds Phonological Analyses Phonology Phonology is the study of human speech sounds in terms of the following: (i) The function of sounds. In every human language, sounds are used in words in order to convey meaning. In Chapter 1, we learned that […]Read More 4.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: Do you know the meaning of the term phonology & the structure and function of sounds?
Chapter 5 5.1 Outline the relationship that exists between the phonetic and phonological forms. Phonological and phonetic forms The relationship between the phonetic and phonological forms Phonetic forms have much in common with the phonological forms. From a generative point of view the phonetic form is the output of the input of the phonological forms. […]Read More 5.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: Are you able to explain the relationship between the phonetic and phonological forms?
Chapter 6 6.1 Explain the three main types of airstreams as used in the production of human speech sounds Analyses of Initiation 6.1 Descriptive elements These are elements of initiation, phonation, articulation (temporal, prosodic, metrical organization) 6.2. Classification of sounds segments by Initiation This classification is based on the – Airstream mechanisms and airflow […]Read More 6.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: Can you explain the types of air-streams as used in the production of human speech sounds?
Chapter 7 7.1 Examine the phenomenon that creates the various phonation types that exist in language Analyses of Phonation Phonation type The phonation types are as a result of the different states of the glottis. Phonation has to do with the generation of acoustic energy at the larynx by the action of the vocal folds. The […]Read More 7.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: How do various phonation types come about?
Chapter 8 8.1 Provide an explanation on the role of placement of speech organs in the articulation of human speech Classification according to place of articulation The Places of Articulation The place of articulation of a human speech sound is according to the distribution of speech organs along the vocal tract, from the larynx to the […]Read More 8.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: Do you know the various places of articulation of human speech?
Chapter 9 9.1 Highlight the various articulations that exist in the oral cavity Analysis of articulations in the oral cavity 1. Labial articulations Bilabial The two lips are involved e.g. /p, b/ Labio dental The lower lip and the upper teeth are involved e.g. / f, v/ 2. Dent-alveolar articulations Dental /ð, θ/ […]Read More 9.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: Can you highlight the various articulations that exist in the oral cavity?
Chapter 10 10.1 Provide an analysis of articulations in the pharyngeo-laryngeal cavity Analysis of articulations in the pharyngeo – laryngeal cavity The pharyngeal articulations Pharyngeo – the articulations in the pharynx are called the pharengeal sounds. The pharynx is the cavity behind the mouth, from the back of the nose down to the larynx. The […]Read More 10.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: What articulations exist in the pharyngeo-laryngeal cavity?
Chapter 11 11.1 Examine how classification according to manner of articulation impacts language from stricture types to the various dimensions Classification according to manner of articulation Manner of articulation The manner of articulation is determined by the vocal organs. It is specified according to the degree of stricture i.e. – the degree to which the vocal […]Read More 11.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: Can you examine how manner of articulation impacts language and sound?
Chapter 12 12.1 Give an analysis of the classification and articulation of vowels. Analyses and classification of Vowels Articulation of vowels Vowels are articulated with a stricture of open approximation they are normally voiced (voiced or creaky state). They are distinguished in terms of. The lip position This is the most obvious and most easily controlled […]Read More 12.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: What do you know about the analysis of the classification and articulation of vowels?
Chapter 13 13.1 Highlight co-articulations, articulations and the various articulating organs Co-articulations, Articulations and the number of articulating organs Most articulations are single i.e. have only two articulating organs: one passive and the other active. We also have co-articulations namely. The sounds discussed so far have a single articulation – one active articulator and one passive articulator […]Read More 13.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: What are co-articulations, articulations & their various articulating organs? How do they impact language?
Chapter 14 14.1 Discuss the phonemenon of segmental and parametric analysis Segmental and parametric analysis Introduction Parametric forms and phonological forms have much in common. In generative phonology the phonetic form is considered the output of the input of phonological forms. E.g. /e/ the phonetic form of this sound is dependent / determined by the […]Read More 14.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: What is segmental and parametric analysis?
Chapter 15 15.1 Highlight the place of phoneme and allophones in the English Language Phonemes and phones Phoneme and the phone/allophone The historical perspective Def: the component of language that deals with phonemes and their possible combination There is no strict chronological description of phonological theory since each school of phonology could be seen as a […]Read More 15.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: Can you highlight the role played by phonemes and allophones in the English Language?
Chapter 16 16.1 Dissect the concept of distinctive oppositions Distinctive oppositions Opposition Opposition is a central concept in phonology. Oppositions between phonemes are classified according to three different aspects of the phoneme’s phonetic qualities. A phoneme’s relation to the entire phonetic system This is the phoneme’s opposition to other members of the phoneme system. It […]Read More 16.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: Can you Dissect the concept of distinctive oppositions?
Chapter 17 17.1 Breakdown the structure of the syllable The syllable The structure of the syllable A syllable is defined as a minimal pulse of initiatory activity bounded by a momentary retardation of the initiator. The phonological shape of the syllable Syllable Rhyme Onset Coda Nucleus Open and closed syllables Open – no termination i.e. […]Read More 17.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: Can you breakdown the structure of a syllable?
Chapter 18 Examine the phonetic and phonological features of stress Stress 18.1 The phonetic and phonological features of stress An initiatory supra segmental feature of utterances that applies to whole syllables. It is produced when a speaker pushes more air out of the lungs for one syllable than she does for an adjacent one. This […]Read More 18.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: Can you examine the phonetic and phonological features of stress?
Chapter 19 19.1 Explain the intricacies of pitch as it pertains to language Pitch Introduction Pitch can be low or high as in music. It is a phonatory prosody. It is an auditory property that enables a listener to place a sound on a scale going from low to high. It refers to the highness or lowness […]Read More 19.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: What is pitch? How does it impact language?
Chapter 20 Explain the phenomenon that is sonority in the English language Sonority The phonetic and phonological features of sonority is an articulatory prosodic feature. It is a sound’s loudness relative to that of the other sounds with the same length stress and pitch. Calculating the degree of sonority a) It is closely linked in articulatory terms […]Read More 20.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: What is sonority? How does it impact the language?
Chapter 21 21.1 Outline the articulatory process beyond the single segment Articulatory process beyond the single segment Why beyond the single segment a) the relationship of a segment to a stressed vowel – choc ‘late b) When the sound is combined with others and it is word initial, medial or final. c) when morphemes are […]Read More 21.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: Are you able to Outline the articulatory process beyond the single segment
Chapter 21 21.2 Discuss the various locations of articulation of language ARTICULATION: LOCATIONS We should remember various articulatory stricture types, representing the ‘vertical’ and ‘time’ (prolongable/non-prolongable) dimensions of articulation, and the location of the oral air-path, representing the “transverse’ dimension of articulation (median/lateral). Now we turn to the very important quasi-longitudinal dimension of articulation, namely, […]Read More 21.2 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: Can you discuss the various locations of articulation of language?
Chapter 1 1.1 Define Language. Describe the features of a language and the linguistic theory PRELIMINARIES Introduction This course covers key areas in syntax and morphology from a theoretical perspective. In syntax, two approaches have been adopted: the formal and the functional. Issues in morphology are handled within generative grammar. However, as an entry point […]Read More 1.1 Advanced Theoretical Studies in Grammar: What does the term “language” mean in the context of linguistic theory?
Chapter 2 2.1 Analyze the rise and development of traditional grammar TRADITIONAL GRAMMAR Introduction Just as a tree has roots, the study of language has a beginning- traditional grammar. It is therefore logical to briefly revisit what you have covered so far about traditional grammar before we can proceed to later developments in the linguistic […]Read More 2.1 Advanced Theoretical Studies in Grammar: Do you know how traditional grammar rose and developed?
Chapter 2 2.2 Examine the strengths and weaknesses of traditional grammar. STRENGTHS OF TRADITIONAL GRAMMAR The following are among the strong points of traditional grammar: Since it dominated the education system, it improved the students’ writing by making it more systematic and well The prescriptive rules helped to regularize language usage to some extent. Traditional […]Read More 2.2 Advanced Theoretical Studies in Grammar: Can you examine some of the strengths and weaknesses of traditional grammar?
Chapter 3 STRUCTURALISM 3.1 Examine the concept of structuralism Introduction. As we have already seen, traditional grammar has a number of failings. It was in an attempt to address them that Structuralism arose. The form of the word shows that it is derived from the word ‘structure’. The proponents of this school of grammar maintain […]Read More 3.1 Advanced Theoretical Studies in Grammar: What does structuralism entail?
Chapter 3 STRUCTURALISM 3.2 Analyze the concept of immediate constituent analysis and its impact on language. IMMEDIATE CONSTITUENT ANALYSIS (ICA) The goal of ICA is to identify and describe words that are closely related (Immediate constituents). A two-way or binary system is used in dividing up a sentence into decreasing parts called constituents. In syntax, […]Read More 3.2 Advanced Theoretical Studies in Grammar: What is Immediate Constituent Analysis?
Chapter 4 TRANSFORMATIONAL GENERATIVE GRAMMAR 4.1 Outline the phrase structure component Introduction Various terms have been used to refer to Transformational Generative Grammar among them being: generative grammar, transformational generative grammar and transformational grammar. In the context of this course, we will adopt the term transformational generative grammar because it best reflects the content covered. […]Read More 4.1 Advanced Theoretical Studies in Grammar: What is the phrase structure component?
Chapter 5 THE TRANSFORMATIONAL COMPONENT 5.1 Highlight the power of transformational rules Introduction Having seen that phrase structure rules have various limitations and that what they produce are not real sentences, we need other rules that are capable of giving us actual sentences. These are transformational rules (henceforth T rules). As the name suggests, T […]Read More 5.1 Advanced Theoretical Studies in Grammar: Can you assess the power of transformational rules?
Chapter 6 FUNCTIONAL GRAMMAR 6.1 Examine the concept of functional grammar in the context of language. Introduction So far, what we presented is formal grammar (traditional grammar, Structuralism and Transformational Generative Grammar). That is, grammar whose central interest is in the structure or form of a language. We now turn to a different kind of […]Read More 6.1 Advanced Theoretical Studies in Grammar: What is functional grammar?
Chapter 7 CLAUSE AS EXCHANGE AND CLAUSE AS REPRESENTATION 7.1 Analyze the juxtaposition that is inherent in clause as exchange and clause as representation. Introduction Another level at which the clause is organised is that of exchange. Here, the clause is used to exchange information and is therefore seen as an interactive event involving both […]Read More 7.1 Advanced Theoretical Studies in Grammar: What do we mean by clause as exchange and clause as representation?
Chapter 8 GENERATIVE MORPHOLOGY 8.1 Analyze the place of generative morphology in language Introduction In this section, we will handle morphology within the framework of generative grammar. Within such a framework, the key question is: “what knowledge does one have regarding the structure of words in a given language?” A generative theory of morphology provides […]Read More 8.1 Advanced Theoretical Studies in Grammar: What is generative morphology?
Chapter 9 9.1 Explain morphemes and there place in the English Language BRANCHES OF MORPHOLOGY AND WORD FORMATION PROCESSES Introduction We begin by looking at the branches of morphology before focusing on word formation processes in the next section. Broadly, morphology is divided into two: derivational/lexical and inflectional morphology. This division entails that there are […]Read More 9.1 Advanced Theoretical Studies in Grammar: What are morphemes? Can you identify the different types?
Chapter 10 LEXICAL MORPHOLOGY 10.1 Explain the concept of lexical morphology Introduction Among generative morphologists is a particular group called the lexicalists. Their brand of generative morphology is known as Lexical Morphology. It is so called because it posits that all derivational morphemes should be dealt with in the lexicon. The lexicon not only contains […]Read More 10.1 Advanced Theoretical Studies in Grammar: Do you Understand Lexical Morphology?
Chapter 1 1.1 Define the term Comparative Education COMPARATIVE OF EDUCATION Definition Comparative Education has been defined in different ways by various authors. There has been no clearly accepted definition of Comparative Education. However, there has been one agreement among the scholars that Comparative Education is concerned with comparisons in education. Comparative Education is an […]Read More 1.1 Comparative Education: What is Comparative Education?
Chapter 1 1.2 Give an analysis of the various reasons for studying comparative education Purpose of Studying Comparative Education There are enough reasons why prospective teachers should study comparative education. These include: 1) For Intellectual Reasons It is an intellectual activity that scholars can pursue to the highest level possible. An individual can do this […]Read More 1.2 Comparative Education: Comparative Education: What is the purpose of Studying Comparative Education?
Chapter 1 1.3 Examine the methods used to solve issues in comparative education METHODOLOGY IN COMPARATIVE EDUCATION The debate about methodology of comparative education has been stimulated from time to time by the need to produce valid answers and better understanding of the education systems, theory, practices and problems. One of the functions of comparative […]Read More 1.3 Comparative Education: What are the methods used to solve issues in comparative education?
Chapter 1 1.4 Explain how traditional methods have been used in the studying of comparative education Traditional Methods a) Descriptive method From the early times of the discipline development the most noticeable aspect was that of description only. This method had neither any methodology nor system nor details to the roots of the discipline. The […]Read More 1.4 Comparative Education: How have traditional methods been used in the study of comparative education?
Chapter 1 1.5 Provide a description of the concept of Social Science Methodoloy, its assumptions and shortcomings. Social Science Methodology Under this approach several methods linked to the various social science disciplines have been brought forth. The development of social and behavioral science vastly expanded options for carrying out educational research. Various scholars from different […]Read More 1.5 Comparative Education: What is Social Science Methodoloy? What assumptions and shortcomings underlie its existence?
Chapter 1 1.6 Explain the steps to follow in the application of the sociological approach Sociological approach In the sociological method the educational problems are studied in a social context. This is done with the belief that the educational system of a country is conditioned by its social, cultural, economic, political and religious situations. Hence […]Read More 1.6 Comparative Education: What is the sociological approach? Which steps should I follow in its application?
Chapter 1 1.7 Examine philosophical analysis methodology in the context of comparative education Philosophical Analysis In using this technique, the main assumption is that a process of simplication would succeed in diminishing the number of diverse events to be considered. Explanation of any education system is connected with the philosophy of that country. The national […]Read More 1.7 Comparative Education: What do we mean by the philosophical analysis methodology in the context of comparative education?
Chapter 1 1.8 Give a full depth discussion on the problem solving approach in comparative education its steps and assumptions Problem Solving Approach Brian Holmes envisioned the field of comparative education as eminently practical in nature, providing the basis for the solutions to educational problems. He spelt out a means of identifying a problem […]Read More 1.8 Comparative Education: Do you know the problem solving approach in comparative education, its steps and assumptions?
Chapter 1 1.9 Breakdown the different factors that influence education systems in the world. FACTORS INFLUENCING EDUCATION SYSTEMS IN THE WORLD One of the purposes of comparative education is to develop general statements about the forces and factors that influence development of educational systems. There are certain similarities among the factors that determine and shape […]Read More 1.9 Comparative Education: Can you breakdown the different factors that influence education systems in the world?
Chapter 1 1.10 Discuss the educational system in Cameroon EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS CAMEROON EDUCATION SYSTEM The history of Cameroon is important in understanding the evolution of education system in this country. First, the country was colonized by the Germans and after the World War I became a trustee for the League of Nations under the rule […]Read More 1.10 Comparative Education: Can you discuss the intricacies of Cameroon’s Education System?
CHAPTER TWO 2.1 Trace the evolution of education in Nigeria NIGERIA EDUCATION SYSTEM A study of educational system in Nigeria is important in that it is one of the most populous country in Africa and there is need to understand the steps that are being taken to access education to this large population. Background As […]Read More 2.1 Comparative Education: Can you trace the evolution of education in Nigeria?
CHAPTER TWO 2.2 Identify the major characteristics of Nigerian education system Administration and Organization of Education System The current administrative system is divided into the Federal Capital Territory and 36 states. The management of education in Nigeria is based on this federal system, so that while basic educational policy regarding structure, curriculum and school year […]Read More 2.2 Comparative Education:Can you analyze the major characteristics of Nigerian education system?
CHAPTER TWO 2.3 Identify at least three issues affecting education in Nigeria. Issues of Education in Nigeria Religious groups, mainly Christian missionaries from Europe who used them as tools for proselytizing and converting the Nigerian, originally established the country’s schools. The curricula were faith-based and overwhelmed by religious indoctrination, dogma, and brainwashing. Education was used […]Read More 2.3 Comparative Education: What are some of the issues affecting education in Nigeria?
CHAPTER TWO 2.4 Examine the role of educational system reforms in Nigeria’s rapidly changing society Reforms The rapid expansion of the education system, compounded by a shrinking economy, has constrained educational development in Nigeria. A reduction of expenditure on education has slowed the reform process and even maintaining the system, as it currently exists is […]Read More 2.4 Comparative Education: What are some of the reforms being put in place in Nigeria’s Educational System?
CHAPTER TWO 2.5 Provide an analysis of the French Education System France Education System France total land area is 547,030 square kilometers of land comprising 545,630 square kilometers and water of 1400 square kilometres. The whole area of metropolitan France is 543,965 square kilometres and has about 1 square kilometer, estuaries and rivers. The geographical […]Read More 2.5 Comparative Education: Can you analyze the education system of France?
CHAPTER TWO 2.6 Explore the structure of Education in France Structure of education in France Pre-primary education Pre-primary education (nursery school) created in 1881 is for children aged 3 to 6. Although it is not compulsory, virtually all 3-year-old children attend nursery school, majority in the public school system. They are state funded, attendance is […]Read More 2.6 Comparative Education: Are you able to explore the structure of education in France?
CHAPTER TWO 2.7 Explain the nature of administraiton, supervision structure and operations of the French Eductional system Administration, Supervision structure and operations The French education system is highly centralized. The principal of centralism was introduced by La Chalotais in 1763 and was supported by the writers of the revolution. Napoleon adopted it to facilitate the […]Read More 2.7 Comparative Education: What do you know about the nature of administraiton, supervision structure and operations of the French Educational system
CHAPTER TWO 2.8 Explain the nature of administration, supervision structure and operations of the French Educational system Administration, Supervision structure and operations The French education system is highly centralized. The principal of centralism was introduced by La Chalotais in 1763 and was supported by the writers of the revolution. Napoleon adopted it to facilitate the […]Read More 2.8 Comparative Education: What do you know about the nature of administration, supervision structure and operations of the French Educational system
CHAPTER TWO 2.9 Explore the place of private education in the French Education System Private education In France private education was recognized in several […]Read More 2.9 Comparative Education: Can you explore the place of private education in the French Educational System?
CHAPTER TWO 2.10 Provide an analysis of some of the challenges facing the French Educational System Challenges of the French education […]Read More 2.10 Comparative Education: What are the challenges facing the French Educational System
CHAPTER TWO 2.11 Provide an analysis of the educational system of England EDUCATION SYSTEM OF ENGLAND (BRITAIN) INTRODUCTION It is good to study the educational system of England since the educational systems of most African countries are modeled on them. In fact Africa today is divided and often referred to as either English or French […]Read More 2.11 Comparative Education: Can you analyze the British Educational System?
CHAPTER TWO 2.12 Discuss the Administration and financing of Education in England Administration and financing of Education in England In England […]Read More 2.12 Comparative Education: Can you provide an explanation of the Administration and financing of Education in England?
CHAPTER 3 3.1 Give a working definition of what brain drain entails BRAINDRAIN Brain drain is a new phenomenon of the 20th century. It can be defined as the migration […]Read More 3.1 Comparative Education: What does Brain Drain Mean? What does it entail?
CHAPTER 3 3.2 Discuss five effects of brain drain. EFFECTS OF BRAIN DRAIN Brain drain has effects to both the country of origin and that of destination. For parent country, the migration of professionals is more than a financial concern because such individuals are the elite without which a national development will suffer. Consequently, if […]Read More 3.2 Comparative Education: Do you know the effects of Brain Drain?
CHAPTER 3 3.3 Identify six possible policy solutions that developing countries should employ in order to reverse brain drain. SOLUTIONS TO BRAIN DRAIN In order to curb brain drain for the less developed countries a number of proposals need to be implemented. First the home government needs to raise the salaries and improve the working […]Read More 3.3 Comparative Education: What policy solutions should developing countries employ to reverse Brain Drain?
CHAPTER 4 4.1 Give a comprehensive definition of the term “aid” Dependence in education Definition Aid from the French word aide, also known as international aid, overseas aid, or foreign aid, is a voluntary transfer of resources from one country to another, given at least partly with the objective of benefiting the recipient country. It […]Read More 4.1 Comparative Education: What does the Aid mean in the context of Comparative Education?
CHAPTER 4 4.2 Discuss the types of aid available in the world GENESIS OF AID Aid existed in ancient times. The trend and amounts have increased tremendously during the twentieth century especially after the Second World War occasionally consisting of humanitarian crisis relief. It was modeled on the Marshall plan which had been successfully used […]Read More 4.2 Comparative Education: What are the types of Aids around the world in the context of Comparative Education?
CHAPTER 4 4.3 Discuss the criticisms that have been leveled on foreign aid on education Educational aid Much of the money provided by the international agencies and bilateral donors to help in education do not benefit the recipient country but a substantial proportion returns to the donor country through payments to expatriates staff and consultants. […]Read More 4.3 Comparative Education: What are some of the criticisms leveled against foreign aid on education?
CHAPTER 4 4.4 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using Aid in education. Future priorities for aid in education Graham-brown (1991) has articulated the following as the areas that future donors should emphasize on in the provision of aid: Aid to education need to be increased. This was supported by the World conference on Education […]Read More 4.4 Comparative Education: What are the advantages and disadvantages of using Aid in education?
CHAPTER 4 4.5 Discuss the aspects of a good teacher Effective Teacher Education in Developing Nations Globally, the key role played by the teacher in education cannot be under estimated however, there is little in regard to policy, or in the implementation of effective teacher training programmes and placement. Teacher training models are largely generated […]Read More 4.5 Comparative Education: What are the aspects of a good teacher in the context of Comparative Education?