7b) i). Explain different types of motivation using examples from the field of education
There are different types of motivation according to human behavior:
- Intrinsic motivation: it is the motivation that stems from reinforcers that are inherent in the activity being performed. The learner (actor) enjoys the activity being performed. The learner (actor) enjoys the activity being performed because the activity itself is rewarding and it brings a sense of satisfaction. It is based on child’s personal interest in the nature of the content or disposition to be acquired. This type of motivation is desirable in learning because it creates a permanent base for individual advancement in further learning. An individual comes to love learning for its own sake.
- Extrinsic motivation (Patriotic): it is the motivation that results or depends on other rewards that are external to the action itself. In other words, when a learner or performer does something in order to earn a reward, please someone (teachers, parents) or the person is not interested in the activity for its own sake but cares only about what will be gained. Thus, the learner responds to a desired reinforce. There are two types of social reinforcement or praise: task relevant and non-task relevant. While the former is given for appropriate classroom behavior the latter can be applied out of class when a student performs well in out of class activity like in sports, drama, poetry, music etc.
- Adult-figure motivation (teacher-student relationship): Research shows that students imitate students imitate satisfied and enthusiastic adults, that is; the learners would want to imitate teachers who seem to enjoy themselves and satisfied with their career. The teachers, therefore set role-models for learners and act as motivators in learning. The learners crave to be close to their teachers, to know and identify with them and long for their approval and acceptance unconditionally.
- Peer motivation (student-student motivation): Students want to belong to a peer group and long for the approval of the group and positive peer interactions. This calls for teachers’ use of cooperative group methods and group work in learning and teaching.