Instructional Methods: Can you explain the system’s approach models in teaching and learning?



System’s Approach

2a(v).Explain the system’s approach models in teaching and learning

There are different types of models e.g. linear, cyclic etc.

  1. Linear

A linear model is a representation of a simple system consisting of three basic elements: input, process, and output in line. In the  case of education, learners are the input who are put in the educational system and processed at different levels of education, coming out as educated individuals i.e. doctors, lawyers, teachers, and scientists (output of the system).

A simple technological model of a system’s approach


2. Cyclic

A cyclic system has the property of equifinality which offers alternative approaches and starting points. It is an improvement of a linear model.

A cyclic technological model


The Garlarch’s model operates as follows: the teacher has to specify the objectives which should be realized by teaching a given topic. Based on objectives, content will be selected or vice versa. In order to know where the learning has to start, the knowledge level of the learner in relation to the content has to be determined. For instance, one has to find out what the learner knows about the content to be taught, or the experiences he/she has about the content. This will be the starting point of learning as the teacher progresses from the known to the unknown. The entry behavior will influence and will,in turn, be affected by the teaching strategies to be used, the type of group organization and the time allocated for the content to be taught. The learning space available is important in determining the effectiveness of the teaching method adopted. The content and objectives will further influence the selection of the resources to be used in teaching for the achievement of the stated objectives.

At every stage of the learning/teaching process; evaluation is done. This is meant to check whether or not the content is being learned and objectives are being achieved. If there is any dissatisfaction, then the process has to start all over, that is after analyzing feedback, the product has to go back to the process, or objectives have to be restated again, content selected a fresh, the entry behavior determined, teaching strategies arranged etc. before the assessment is done again.




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