CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1d(iii). Explain the Principles of Teaching
These are beliefs or ideas which teachers should use as guides when planning their own teaching (Taylor: 1970). They are follows:
- Respect for each child: This is where the teacher’s procedure of teaching should recognize the rights of children as human beings with respect and dignity. Each child should therefore, be respected and treated as an individual whose personal development and fulfillment is an end in itself.
- Relating learning to learner’s experience and activities : Learner’s experience refers to each child’s active interaction with his/her world and the understanding that results from the interaction. The activity refers to physical activity or handling and exploring things and the mental activity of thinking, which entails searching for connections between old and new experiences that will satisfy his/her need to understand and to control his/her world.
- Helping the learner to find meaning in learning : The learners must be made to see the purpose, value, and point of what he/she is doing. For children meaning emerges from a purposeful action, so whatever content is taught or activities are planned, they should be undertaken for real reasons that make sense to the child. The teacher, therefore, has to arrange situations that have interest and meaning for the child and that demand exploration and understanding because meaning is only constructed by the learner through experience.
- Helping learners to learn : The teacher has to encourage children to explore, to think and to learn in their own way. Their differences must be recognized and planning carried out based on these differences.
- Creating a conducive environment for participation : The teacher should create an atmosphere which will encourage learners to share their experiences; thinking and even what they have learned. The learners are seen as social in nature and should, therefore, be given opportunities to work with others in their own way.
- Realizing that teaching should proceed in an educationally logical order. Learning makes meaning when teaching is done in sequential steps starting from simple to complex, each step building on the one before it. This leads to further development of skill or understanding or attitude.
- Constant evaluation of learning outcomes : Evaluation has to take place from time to time in order to take stock of progress and of difficulties and to look again and again at objectives and procedures used.