Instructional Methods: What are some of the teaching methods that fall under expository strategy?

Chemistry Teacher with Students in Class

Chapter 4

Teaching Strategies

4b ii).Identify and explain some teaching methods which fall under expository strategy e.g. lecture, demonstration etc.

Lecture method

It is a technique of teaching by means of the spoken word where information is given orally generating understanding to the learners. There are two forms of lecturing: formal and informal.  A formal lecture is purely verbal and communication is basically one-way, from the speaker to the listener and from the listener to the speaker. Informal lecture is normally interrupted by questions, comments, suggestions, viewing, observations, demonstrations etc. The students are given room to participate in various ways as the lecture progresses.


It can be defined as a method whereby a teacher (instructor) uses a diagram, a model or an experiment to guide the learners. It is a teacher based technique of exposing the information to the learners. It shows the learners, how for example experiments are conducted or a skill is performed. It is very common in science and practical subjects.


Narration is an oral presentation of a string of events often which explanations of the events in terms of their causes, and effects. These could be local, national or international events.  It is a method used in humanities and languages.

Text reading

It is the use of selected or especially composed texts for the transmission of content or to facilitate the acquisition of dispositions other than knowledge. It can be used in any subject across the curriculum. However, the teacher should not abuse this technique by blind reading of the text.  Before any reading is done, the teacher has to identify questions which the learners will focus on as they read the text so that the exercise can become purposeful.

Audio visual presentation.

It is a method where the teacher uses either video tape a film etc. to pass content to the learners.  To be beneficial, the teacher has to incorporate critical discussion in the presentation. He/she should give them a set of questions to guide a discussion on the theme of the film. It should be useful for these questions to be given to the learners before viewing so that they will have something to focus on during the presentation.


Writing notes from dictation is a method which has been abused by many teachers. Some of them spent a whole lesson either dictating notes to the learners or copying notes on the board for the learners to copy. The best way of involving learners in note writing is as follows.


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