Instructional Methods: What are the models of communication?


Chapter Eight

Communication in the Classroom

8b ii).Differentiate between transmission model/linear model and exchange model

These models are linear in shape and are based on a stimulus –response principle. The message from the sender is a stimulus and the reaction to the message send is a response.Exchange model  is where communication is seen as occurring within a social relationship or within a society. Such models are NewComb model (1953), Schramm and Osgood model (1954) and Jacobson’s model (1960) etc.

A) Highlight the characteristics of transmission model.

  • Fixation of communication process which assumes that communication starts from a certain point and ends at another.
  • Clarity of separation of the sender, channel, and receiver.
  • Equality of power between the sender, and receiver in the communication process.
  • Emphatic on effects of the message at the expense of the elemen

B ) State the characteristics of exchange  model.

  1. It is triangular in shape.
  2. Communication being affected by social relationships
  3. The message conveyed is being affected by the receiver’s attitude towards the subject of the communication.



The model is circular in shape because both the sender and receiver in the communication process fulfill the same functions at different levels. They become both sender and receiver at different times during the communication process.

Characteristics of the above model.

  1. Communication is seen as an exchange of views not the transmission of ideas/views.
  2. Both sender and receiver perform the same functions of encoding and decoding information at various levels of the communication process.
  3. Communication as a process is circular, it completes a circle by coming back to where it started.



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