4b vi). Explain how values and attitudes ought be transmitted in the teaching of Religious Education?
The methods already mentioned in this chapter and the previous do apply. However, they
would be need to highlight some of key methods. These would include the experiential
and interactive learning approach, the critical and valuing approach with the latter emphasising on valuing skills. Experiential learning approach in teaching morals is based on the fact that “only real life experiences are effective in moral learning”. That the child learns by living life and experiences are the true teachers. This calls for the teacher teaching using resource people related in one way or another to the learners; and using simulated experiences such as drama, role-play, mock sessions and dance. In mock sessions for instance the learners simulate the working of a social institution such as a mock court session on victims of sexual irresponsibility such as rapes, divorces, pregnancies e.t.c.
Critical learning approach leads to the acquisition of critical skills while teaching a
particular topic in a C.R.E or Islamic syllabus. Critical learning method is defined as that
method in which the teacher facilitates the acquisition of critical skills while teaching a
particular topic (Groenewagen: 1993).
There are a number of methods already discussed which require critical thinking: They
include the whole class discussion, question-answer, debate, small group discussions,
buzz groups, panel discussions etc. These methods lead to the development of positive
moral development leading to decision-making and judgement.
In the above methods the students are able to share with each other opinions, viewpoints,
and reactions. Interactive and group skills are also fostered through the above discussions
leading to the development of social relating skills which are important in moral development
The valuing approach as described by Raths (1966) is a way of interacting with a student so that s/he considers what s/he has chosen, what s/he prizes or what s/he is doing. Valuing approach is important according to Groenwagen (1993) and Raths (1966) because;
- It stimulates an individual to clarify his/her vales
- Helps learners to accept and become committed to proper high level values
- Enables students to look at their behaviour and make decisions from the existing alternatives
- Helps learners to develop clear values
This approach is categorized into four: thought sheet/daily, writing, value sheets, value
clarifying responses and value analysis.
Thought sheet is a method where the teacher either occasionally or regularly asks students to write down their thoughts, feelings, and reactions about a topic or an issue.
The writing can be used by the teacher in a class discussion maintaining anonymity (Groenewegen: 1993).
Value sheets according to Raths (1966) consist of a series of questions about an issue.
The questions may be presented on the value sheet or by a role-playing incident, a simulation, a dramatization, a film clip, a tape recording and a reading selection.
Students will write down answers to the questions on the value sheets. Discussions will
then follow. Value sheets give an opportunity for one to exercise the valuing skills by
choosing from alternatives on the basis of the advantages and disadvantages attached to
each alternative. The sheet should vary from one age group to another depending on the
group’s moral judgement