ECT 300 EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY: Can you analyze the ASSURE Model?

CHAPTER  5

SYSTEMATIC PLANNING FOR THE USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA

5a iii). Discuss the use of the ASSURE Model in the teaching practice.

5.4.2 Model 2: The ASSURE model

The ASSURE model is a procedural guide for planning and delivering instruction that integrates technologies and media into the teaching process. The model is a well-known guide for developing a lesson or any other instructional lessons. We can also use the assure model for the systematic planning for the use of instructional media. The model gets its name from the acronym ASSURE coined to stand for:

A=Analyze learners

S= State the objectives

S=Select media and materials

U=Utilize the materials

R=Require learner performance

E=Evaluate and revise

 

The ASSURE Model

 

5.4.2 .1 Analyze the learners

Knowing your learner’s skill level is important. Some students may come into your classroom with academic and computer skills that others do not process. There is need to identify the learners in order to select the best media to meet the objectives. They can be analyzed in terms of:

          • Their general characteristics e.g. age, grade level, and socio economic status. These are not content related yet they help to determine the level and select appropriate examples.
          • Specific entry competencies. These are content related qualities e.g. prerequisite skills such as appropriate vocabulary level, knowledge of technical terms. Students come to class varying in their knowledge, abilities, interests, and experiences. Existing knowledge and skills refer to what the student already knows. When students don’t have the necessary prerequisites, they will at best have a difficult time succeeding in the lesson. We must also bear in mind the skills that we intend to impart, learners, attitudes, whether they have any biases or misconceptions. The teacher must think of materials that are highly stimulating.

 

5.4.2.2 State objectives

Student objectives are a statement of the type of performance you expect students to be able to demonstrate at the end of the instruction. When the teacher has clear objectives, then s/he can select the materials and determine the focus and purpose of the instruction. The objectives should be generated from needs assessment, course syllabus, textbooks and the instructor. The objectives should:

          • Be as specific as possible, stating what the learners ought to get out of the lesson, and not what the teacher plans to get into the learner.
          • Be in terms of the learner
          • State the conditions under which the performance is to be observed
          • State the degree of acceptable level of performance\

5.4.2.3 Select media and materials

Selection of media and materials include three processes which are:

          • Decide on the method of instruction
          • Choose the media format that is appropriate for the method
          • Select, modify, update or design materials for the instruction.

Media enables the teacher to bridge the gap between the beginning (present knowledge, skills, and attitudes) and the ending points (objectives). The most appropriate media and material would be that which is most compatible with the stated objectives and the learners’ characteristics. To obtain appropriate media and materials the teacher should consider

  • Using ready made materials
  • Modifying ready made materials designing own materials.

Ready-made materials must be previewed to ascertain their worth. The teacher should pre-practice the actual presentation. Factors to consider when selecting or purchasing media equipment include:

          • Portability
          • Strength
          • Cost
          • Ease of operation
          • Quality of performance
          • Effective design
          • Ease of maintenance/repair
          • Reputation of manufacturer
          • Local equipment status

 

The following guidelines should be considered when selecting software media materials:

          • Must meet the objectives
          • Must be consistent with the students level of ability and knowledge
          • Must communicate concepts clearly
          • Must be up to date with curriculum requirements
          • Must be interesting to present
          • Design must allow for learner participation
          • Must be of high technical quality.

As we select the media we must also bear in mind the media characteristics against the objectives we wish to accomplish. Examples of some media are listed below and corresponding characteristics:

Type of media Visual Color Sound Motion Interaction Tactile
Real objects/models Yes Yes Yes
Textbooks/handouts Yes Yes
Visual (pictures, photos, drawings, charts, graphs) Yes Yes
Display boards(chalk, bulletin) Yes Yes
Overhead transparencies Yes Yes
Slides and filmstrips Yes Yes Yes
Audio (tape, disc, voice) Yes
Video and film (tape, disc) Yes Yes Yes Yes
Television (live) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Computer software Yes Yes Yes Yes
Multimedia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

5.4.2.4. Utilize the materials

The teacher should prepare the environment i.e to make seating arrangements, displays, acoustics, darken the room if need be, take care of ventilation etc. the class should be properly inducted followed by a lively presentation by the teacher. The teacher should be reminded that observing the 4 Ps listed below helps in ensuring proper utilization of the media:

  • Prepare yourself (plan, outline instructional events, practice)
  • Prepare the instructional materials (check list of materials needed, gather the materials, check equipment, cue the media and put up the materials)
  • Prepare the learning environment (comfortable seating, adequate ventilation, control temperature, suitable lighting)
  • Prepare the students (arouse interest/motivate, state purpose, present overview of content, related content opt previous and future topics, explain unfamiliar vocabulary)

It is also essential to be aware the utilization checklist applicable to the various materials e.g.

For real objects and models

          • Teacher to familiarize with the object or model
          • Object or model to be large enough to be seen
          • Teacher to show object/model only when needed
          • Teacher to indicate actual size, shape, and color of objects
          • Avoid passing a single object around the class

For the textbook

          • Textbook to meet students needs
          • Textbook to encourage students to use it
          • Direct reading with objectives and/or questions
          • Emphasize the use of visuals in printed materials
          • Check the teacher’s guide for additional materials and activities
          • Supplement the textbook with other media

For visuals

          • Use simple materials that everyone can see
          • Provide written or verbal cues to highlight important aspects of visuals
          • Use one visual at a time except for comparison
          • Hold visuals steadily

The success or failure of any technological  innovation in the classroom depends on the teacher. In general effective classroom management will refer to a set of skills and tactics that a teacher employs in order to keep students on task and to keep the classroom running smoothly. These include:

          • Preparing in advance
          • Giving clear instructions
          • Setting a learning tone
          • Maintaining attention
          • Questioning
          • Providing feedback
          • Making smooth transitions

5.4.2.5 Require learner performance

The most effective learning situations are those that require learning and ask learners to complete activities that build mastery toward the objectives. Classrooms lessons should motivate students to be active learners who are involved in learning through practicing, performing, solving, building, creating and manipulating. The teacher should encourage the learners to participate actively and possibly manipulate the material. Correct responses from the students should be reinforced. Whenever necessary follow up activities should be provided.

5.4.2.6. Evaluation/Revision

Evaluation is the method of appraising or determining the significance or worth of an item or action. This evaluation process includes assessing the media and materials used. Reflective evaluation is thinking back on the components of the teaching and learning process and determining the effectiveness of the learner outcomes and the use of technology during the process. The entire learning process should be evaluated both summative and formative.

In summary, the above models emphasize that in the systematic approach to instruction, one must:

          • Define (or accept) objectives and select content
          • Select appropriate learning experiences (and seek to individualize them)
          • Select one or more appropriate formats in which to carry out the learning experiences
          • Assign personal roles
          • Choose appropriate materials and equipment
          • Evaluate results and recommend future improvements.
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