Communication Process and Learning
1a iii).Explain the essential components of communication.
1.4.4 Essential components of communication
It is possible for the sake of analysis to break down the communication process into its components but he would be largely arbitrary as in actuality the process has no discrete parts. From the above-highlighted models, various essential components can be identified. They are discussed here under
The spruce is the encoder and creator of messages. In class, sources of information comprise the teacher, pupils, textbooks, handouts, and resource materials. The teacher is the main source as s/he categorizes and organizes messages according to the understanding level of the pupils. For the source to carry out this function it must be motivated. The source originates the messages for the purpose of affecting the receiver in certain ways that s/he wishes to accomplish these goals by actively involving the receiver. Sometimes the source doesn’t actually originate the messages but simply reorganizes already existing ones. In carrying out his function the sources must use a code i.e. a language which must be meaningful and acceptable to the receiver.
In summary, the source has four distinct roles:
- Determining the meaning of a message
- Encoding the meaning into a message
- Sending the message
- Perceiving and reacting to the receiver’s responses.
The receiver decodes the message using any of the five senses. After a process of in interpretation s/he exhibits some observable behavior (verbally or nonverbally). From the receiver’s behavior /response the source determines whether s/he has been effective. If the message has had no impact, the receiver will re-examine the message and re-encode it in order to achieve the desired effect. Thus the receiver’s response affects the source significantly.
The source and the receiver are mutually interdependent as:
- The source encodes and transmits
- The receiver perceives, decodes and interprets
- The receiver responds either in another encoded message or in motor behavior
- Their receiver’s response is, in turn, a message for the source
- The source now behaves like the receiver.
The communication is depicted as a non-ending process because:
- The receiver subjects the message to his/her own interpretation based on his/her prior experiences
- In encoding the message the source anticipates or predicts the receiver’s interpretation of the message in light of the receiver’s experience
- When both the source and the receiver have similar prior experiences the source will be in a better position to precisely predict the receiver’s interpretation
- The code (language) used by the source should have a vocabulary that is within reach of the receiver.
The receiver has five distinct roles namely:
- Receive by listening, seeing, touching smelling and tasting
- Attend to all messages
- Decode and evaluate the message
- Store and recall the message
- Respond to the source, channel, environment, noise, and message
The message can be a verbal or nonverbal stimulus intended to affect the receiver. In a classroom situation, the message is the content. The message must be well selected and organized to get the receiver’s attention and keep him/her tuned and actively participating in the process.
A channel is something that helps transmit or carry a message or series of messages between two or more communicators. It is the link between the source and the receiver. It is natural for communication to involve multiple channels. The channel can be either in the form of sound waves (words or light waves (visuals, non-verbal communication or print). The channel must be acceptable to both the source and the receiver e.g. it is useless to speak to a dumb/deaf receiver or to use visuals for a blind receiver. The source must also take into account the individual needs of the learners in selecting the channel.
This is the teaching/learning environment that surrounds the teacher and the learner. This environment is made up of:
- The attitudes of the source and the receiver
- The socio-economic status of both the source and the receiver
- Room size, color, and temperature
- The seating arrangement.
This is anything that interferes with or changes the meaning of a message. It can be in the form of daydreaming as well as visual distractions. It is also anything that reduces the accuracy, meaning, understanding or retention of the message. In a classroom, noise includes annoying habits: physical movements, room temperature, poor lighting, poor acoustics, and inattentiveness, lack of motivation or physical impairments of the hearing mechanism
This allows the source to monitor the responses or reactions of the receiver. In a classroom situation, this can be in the form of pupils responding the teacher’s questions or taking part in a discussion, demonstrations, drama, debates, pupils carrying out some given tasks or by simply checking the pupils’ facial expressions. Feedback helps the teacher to modify or change the instructional strategy, speed of delivery, vocabulary level and help him/her control the class more effectively.
|Theoretical principle||Practical application|
|Communication is a continuous two-way transaction||Communicate with students rather than to them|
|Filters and interference distort the message||Identify the filters and interference (actual and potential) and reduce them as much as possible|
|There is no single best way to communicate||Use more than one channel to communicate with students.|