ECT 300 EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY: What are the various types of audio media and how do they impact the teaching process?

CHAPTER 4

PRINT AND NON-PRINT MEDIA

4c iii). Analyze the various types of audio media there advantages and disadvantages and how they impact the overall teaching process.

4.4.1.1 Radio

A facility to produce radio program materials commonly known as a studio must at the minimum have a mixer console, microphones for presenters, record/disc playing desks also known as turntables, tape recording desks, editing facilities, and monitoring facilities. Script writers prepare the materials for recording as outlined in unit five of this module.

4.4.1.2 Radiovision

This is a hybrid mode which combines audio materials with visuals thus enabling multi-sensory stimulation of the learner to take place. The audio materials can be combined with textural materials. There are ideal for individualized instruction.

4.4.1.3 Tape/Audio cassette

When selecting a tape or cassette recorder for instructional use, we should hear in mind portability, and ease of use on one hand and ease of editing on the other hand. Tape recorders also known as reel to reel provide for easy editing while cassette recorders are portable and easy to use. Many portable tape recorders give reasonable performance for special and popular music recording and reproduction even though the frequency response of cassettes is below the 15 kHz audible by human beings.

4.4.1.4 Phone discs, turntable/record player

These media were common and useful before the 1980’s when the audio cassette technology literally phased them out. They had the disadvantage of not being copied or duplicated, although this was also good for copyright purposes.

4.4.1.5. Telephone

The telephone can be very useful as an instructional media especially or distance education students. They can easily get in touch with their lecturers for individual assistance. With good organization, it is also possible to network and carry out teleconferencing. However, this is prohibited by the high tariffs. The introduction of cell phone technology has slightly improved accessibility though the cost is still prohibitive. The cell phone has also in a way opened to phone-in participation which are popular in most radio as well as television programmes.

4.4.2 Visual media

Visuals are two-dimensional materials designed to communicate messages to students. They often include verbal as well as symbolic visual cures. These are instructional materials that utilize the sense of sight only, and normally requires to be accompanied by explanations from the teacher. They include the following.

4.4.2.1 Chalkboard

This is the most common and widely used type of display media in school . It can be used to give key words, outlines, lists, diagrams, graphs and sketches. For effective use of the chalkboard the teacher should:

        • Decide in advance how to plan to develop explanations on the board point by point as the lesson proceeds.
        • Use templates made of plywood or heavy cardboard for tracing frequently used shapes.
        • Check the visibility of the board from several positions around the room
        • Use drawing aids or outlines to create visuals on the board
        • Use temporary guidelines to help you to write in a straight line on the board
        • Move around so that you block that you have written on the board
        • Talk to your students and not to the board

4.4.2.2 Overhead projector and transparencies

Overhead transparencies may be created from clear acetate, photographic film, or any of a number of other transparent materials capable of being imprinted with an image. The materials range from single, simple transparencies to elaborate sets with multiple overlays. The OHP is a useful visual aid to support mass instruction. It has largely replaced the chalkboard. It has the following advantages:

        • The teacher can use it while facing the class unlike the chalkboard
        • It can be used to show prepared materials which can be used over and over again
        • It is clean, quiet, and user-friendly and requires minimum technical skill apart from replacing the bulb
        • It requires no room darkening thus allowing pupils to take or make notes simultaneously

The overhead projector (OHP) is used to project transparencies that are similar to large slides. It projects a large picture. transparencies can be used to visually present concepts, processes, facts, statistics, outline, and summaries to small groups as well as large groups. A series of transparencies can be used to systematically present a well-planned lesson. Presentation using an OHP can be improved by:

        1. Using a pointer on the transparency to direct attention to a detail
        2. Using a felt pen or a special pencil to add details or mark points on the transparency during the presentation.
        3. Control the rate of presenting information by covering a transparency with paper and exposing the data when you are ready to discuss each point.
        4. Superimposing additional transparent sheet as overlays to add complexity to the concept present in the base transparency. Moving overlay sheets so as to rearrange elements of a diagram.
        5. Simultaneously project other visual materials (on slides or in motion pictures) that illustrate or apply the generalizations shown on the transparency. Some of the methods of preparing transparencies include :
        6. Using felt pens
        7. On thermal film using a thermal copier, this is a good method of preparing one color transparency from single sheets
        8. On electrostatic film using an electrostatic copy machine, the final product is not a good as from the other methods.
        9. On diazo film using a diazo printer and developer. This is an excellent method for preparing color transparencies and requires translucent originals.

In preparing transparencies, remember to:

  • Not to crowd the transparency with too much information
  • To make characters of a suitable size (minimum 6 mm. in height)
  • To provide satisfactory space between lines of text
  • To make lines thick enough for easy reading
  • To select the color, and their intensity for strong images during projection.

For effective use of transparencies the following utilization checklist would be useful:

          • Use the same frame size for all your transparencies
          • Number the transparencies sequentially in the order in which they will be used
          • Place your notes on the frame of the transparency
          • Focus the image so that it fills the screen
          • Add meaningful details to the transparency as needed
          • Direct student attention to parts of the transparency
          • Overly new information in steps
          • Shift the student’s attention back to you by switching off the OHP

4.4.2.3 Slides

These are a simple form of graphic presentation. They are small transparent photographs individually mounted for one at a time projection. The main item of cost is taking the photographs, but the slides themselves are easy and cheap to make and put together. They consist of single frames of 35mm or similar film mounted in cardboards, metal or plastic binders often between glass sheets for added protection. Many slides can also be arranged to form a filmstrip. The advantages of slides are:

          • They are easier to make, handles, use and store besides being cheap.
          • Useful for showing photographs, diagrams, and other graphics.

The main disadvantage is that they require the room to be darkened, implying that pupils cannot take notes. When making and utilizing slides or a filmstrip, one must consider the following checklist:

          • Express the idea and limit the topic
          • Decide whether the program is motivational, informational, or instructional
          • Consider the audience
          • Prepare the content outline
          • Organize the content and sketch the storyboard to assist in visualization of content
          • Decide whether you need a single slide or a filmstrip to achieve your objective
          • Prepare a scene by scene script as a guide
          • Consider the specifications necessary for your materials
          • If need be select other people to assist in the preparation
          • Darken the room if need be so that all can see
          • Begin and end with a black slide or frame
          • Make sure slides are in the correct order and right-side up
          • Stand facing the class and use a remote control to advance the slides or filmstrip
          • Consider adding music before or after you live or recorded narration.

The slides can be accompanied by recorded and synchronized narration; it will then fall under audio-visual. It can then be used in the following ways:

          • As informal comments
          • As formal reading of narration
          • As recorded narration and other sounds
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