ECT 300 EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY: What is the role of audiovisual media in the teaching process?

CHAPTER 4

PRINT AND NON-PRINT MEDIA

4d i). Examine the role of audiovisual media in the teaching process.

4.4.3 Audio visual media

However, there are those materials and combine both sound and vision. They are more useful in teaching and learning as they appeal to both the senses of hearing and sight. They include the following:

4.5 Television

Television refers to live broadcasts while video refers to images captured on tape or disc. Television can come in several formats. Formats include open circuit television, closed circuit television (CCTV), cable television, one-way and two –way (interactive) television. It is a hybrid mode which combines audio materials with visuals, thus enabling multi-sensory stimulation of the learner to take place. The audio materials can be combined with textual materials, slides or photographic materials. They are ideal for individualized instruction. Problems of cost and maintenance inhibit the use of TV in many areas. Features of TV are similar to those of radio, but the visual element gives an added dimension, so given a choice people will often prefer TV to radio as they find it more interesting and the TV makes it possible to use broadcasting for visual presentation (e.g. in Geography or Science subjects) which would otherwise have to be done in print. Television is ideal for communication with illiterates. Some evidence exists however that illiterates listen to educational TV less often than literate viewers.

For effective use of television the flowing utilization checklist would be useful:

  • If possible determine the content and objectives of the program in advance
  • Check the equipment in advance to be sure it’s in operating order
  • Be sure that all students can see and hear the program without interference
  • Plan introductory and follow up activities
  • Participate actively in reviewing the program with your students.

4.6 Video cassettes/recorder and video camera

The use of the video camera to produce instantly on location has slowly diminished the educational quality as well as reliance on the film. Through its use, it is possible for pupils on a field excursion or listening to a guest speaker to record the events for future reference. The use of the video also allows for immediate use of the product. Comparatively, it is cheaper to do this than to shoot and produce a film. Unlike film it is not sensitive to light, loading and unloading the tape is easier. In this respect, it is cheaper than film and can be reused many times. Sound and pictures are more easily recorded together, as one only needs a camera, microphone and a video recorder. Copyrights notwithstanding, it is also possible to make copies of the instructional material directly from open circuit television.

4.7 Film

A film can be used to present information, describe a process, clarify complex concepts, teach a skill, condense and expend time and affect attitude. Compared to video it has higher resolution, better color fidelity, wider exposure latitude and a greater contrast range. Film produces a superior projected picture especially when enlarged for large group viewing. The film formats especially the 16 mm and the projectors are standardized. Motion picture cameras and projectors require less maintenance than do the video equipment. Note that these advantages of film over video are slowly being achieved from the video as more advanced technical achievements are made.

The following utilization checklist would be used when using films and video:

          • Check lighting, seating and volume controls before the show
          • Prepare students by reviewing previously learned content and by asking new questions
          • Shop the videotape or film at appropriate points for discussion
          • Highlight major points by writing them on the chalkboard or overhead transparency
          • Support the show with meaningful follow up activities

4.8 Operating audio visual equipment

Since the classroom can decide to use instructional materials at any time during the teaching it is necessary for him/her to know how to operate the large variety of equipment. The teacher should not be over dependent on a technician as the institution may not be endowed enough to afford the needed technical staff. Since the institution may have various types of equipment, they should have a copy of manual or operating instructions for each model of equipment; the manual contains details of equipment features and operating techniques. It is important that all users maintain a high standard of performance. This leads to the realization of the following benefits:

          • Equipment can be kept to in working condition for a maximum amount of time
          • The cost of equipment maintenance, repair and replacement can be minimized
          • Incidents of the equipment failing to give the expected output can be reduced.

The sound produced should as much as possible resemble the original sound. The quality of the sound produced is affected by:

          • The type and quality of equipment selected
          • Operator’s skill in using the equipment.

Factors that affect the quality of sound reproduced during playback include:

          • Characteristics of the original sound
          • Environmental conditions in recording/playback
          • The capability of the recording medium to capture all the frequencies of the original sound.
          • The capability of the playback system to reproduce program material in full frequency and without distortion.
          • Ability of the operator to manipulate the equipment
          • Matching. All the components in an audio system should of equal quality and have similar performance characteristics.

For operating most of the equipment, the teacher, as well as the pupils, must master the use of controls such as the normal lay, record, fast forward (speed selection), pause, rewind and stop buttons. In some cases, the controls may be manual as well as through a remote control device.

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