6a ii). Analyze the process of curriculum implementation and some of its primary agents in the teaching environment
Primary Task of Implementation
- Setting up the major steps in the implementation system (outline of the process).
- Reviewing of existing system and noting the existing networks and places where new networks are required.
- Allocating budget for various actions of implementation.
- Ensuring that a management plan for this sub stage of curriculum development is created by personnel in charge.
- Developing means of synchronizing all the support system requisite for successful piloting and final implementation.
- Preparation of the curriculum for teachers-staff training for all staff who will receive the field-tested curriculum including special training for those who will pilot before implementation).
- Identify all staff required for the technical implementation of the field tested programme.
Bishop (1976) pauses some basic questions regarding the staff to be involved in piloting and implementation.
- What new staff’s knowledge and skills are necessary for the programme implementation?
- What are the new roles and responsibilities that the staff will have to assume in both the piloting and the final implementation?
The level of expertise a staff possesses will influence the answers to these questions.
At this juncture, the question is not what expertise staff require but where the staff currently with regard to required expertise come from.
Agents of Curriculum Implementation
Agents are support resources in order to Implement Curriculum as required. They include:
Teacher’s Advisory Centres (TACs)
New teaching, new teaching strategies and other changes have been introduced in the education system. Newly employed teachers may quite often use the Teachers Advisory Centre for obtaining information on how to handle their teaching assignments. Particularly the untrained teachers in Kenyan education of system have benefited from the services of Teachers Advisory Centres Old teachers; also use the centres to update themselves.
Another role of Teacher’s Advisory Centres is the dissemination of teaching materials already developed by the Kenya Institute of Education. Teachers may meet at the centre to discuss how the materials supplied by K.I.E could be beneficially utilized by schools. Sometimes, material supplied by the Kenya Institute of Education’s curriculum development panels may appear irrelevant to the local needs of the learners in particular areas. Teachers use the centres to discuss and make some recommendations to the curriculum panels on how improvement could be made. This role may be viewed as a feedback to curriculum developers at the Kenya Institute of Education. The feedback information from the teachers centres may become a basis for modifying the newly introduced curriculum in schools.
In well established Teachers Advisory Centres, teachers have organized local curriculum development panels. Teachers of English, Mathematics, Geography or Science may form local subject panels. Local subject panels may be to organize teachers to work as a team to develop materials to support what teachers use in classrooms. The materials developed are kept in the centre for other teachers who may want to use them. A lot of materials developed in the Teachers Advisory Centres have been very useful to the Kenya Institute of Education curriculum panels in developing primary school education curriculum. Social Studies for instance, is a crucial curriculum which cannot be generalized by the National Curriculum
Supportive Personnel and Services
Our further concept we need to consider in the implementation of a curriculum is that of educational supervision. This is a very important element in the implementation process. This part of the process is provided by inspectors and filed supervisors. Once one looks at the task the supervisor can perform in relation to curriculum implementation and the improvement of quality at local level one realizes how limited the direct influence on teachers. Field officers and assistance in demonstration of a particular approach to the classroom teacher is very vital. Their feed back of the running quality of the project will assist the review of the materials.
These supervisors can arrange for workshops for teachers to help them discuss issues emerging from the project and also provide suggestions for production of localized materials for teachers’ use in teaching. However, their indirect influence on teachers as co-ordinators of support system for teacher in the field can be very great indeed. Some of the roles supervisors would address themselves to are:
- Identification of problem areas in the materials;
- Suggestions as to the necessary modification;
- Advice on the programme of work to be done in the schools;
- Preparation for the workshops, seminars and courses;
- Assistance with displays at the Teachers Advisory Centres where these exist and encouragement of display in schools;
- Encouragement of regular visits to the centres by teachers and guidance and help to teachers with regard to source of information and other materials.
Are teachers, inspectors and administrators the only individual needed to implement a curriculum.