8b i). Critically analyze some of the principles of Instructional Evaluation
Principles of Instructional Evaluation
Instructional Evaluation should be used on the following criteria by which worth is determined.
Consistency with Objectives
Evaluation should be used to measure what is indicated in curriculum objectives of a course programme R. Tyler (1950) observer that educational objectives are the criteria by which materials are selected, content is outlined, instructional procedure are developed and tests and examinations are prepared. Evaluation tells us how successful we have been in this effort. The criteria for evaluation and the results so obtained should be underscored and accepted by all those concerned. There is need to develop in pupils the ability to learn further.
Validity and Reliability
Evaluation instruments are valid if they measure what they are supposed to measure. A test in CRE, for example, should not be expected to elicit scientific knowledge but religious education concepts. A valid test shall relate to objectives of the specific course and appropriate for the level.
Reliability refers to the consistency with which an evaluation instrument measures giving the same score of results. Two different examiners are able to arrive the same score on the test candidates who have gone through the same learning process. A test item that has several answers yet the test constructor required only one correct answer cannot be said to be reliable. A reliable test will also try to elicit the same abilities, skills from the same sample of students.
Curriculum evaluation should be an on-going process in order to provide effective feedback, which will lead to course improvement. It should moreover relate to previous, present and future learning experiences and follow proper sequencing of the course, from easy to complex items. The evaluation system begins with curriculum decision, which results in the identification of the first goals. It continues throughout the planning process into implementation activities, and cycles back to the planning process.
Instructional evaluation should be a continuous process so that the teacher can adequately and effectively assess each student needs in order to select appropriate resources, develop appropriate learning strategies, judge each student merit, and provide effective feedback and motivation to each student; plan group methods, appropriate activities along specified learning objectives.
Through continuous assessment, the teacher consistently and systematically provides the educational experience most suited to the educational needs, interests, readiness and ability of each student.
Balance means that the curriculum developers have weighed the relative importance they have given to each student need and development tasks. Considerations should be given to all student needs. Evaluation should assess all skills weighted against the time allocated to each. Balance also ensure that the various cognitive skills are equally or reasonably weighted. If the test items dwell on higher or lower cognitive skills only, such a test will lack balance. Hence, there should be a balance in the following cognitive levels of skills: knowledge, comprehensive, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. There should be also balance theory and practical skills. All subjects have theoretical and practical aspects.
Education aims at the development of the whole person. Hence, all the objectives of the curriculum programme should be evaluated, namely: the cognitive, effective, psychomotor, spiritual and social relating domains. Evaluation instruments should be designed to yield accurate information concerning personal, social adjustment, physical growth, spiritual growth, habits of work, interests and attitudes; special aptitudes, growth in creative ability, home and community backgrounds must also be available if the school is to do the best job possible in fostering the wholesome growth of learners and preparing them for effective citizenship in a democratic multi-part, multi-racial, multi-ethnic, multi- religious society such as obtains in Kenya. Education should prepare the individual to face the vicissitudes of life with constancy, persistency, insistence and courage.
Individuals play different roles at different educational experience and stages of life; Pre- primary, primary, secondary, university; childhood, adolescence, adult middle age, retirement age and old age. Each stage requires definite knowledge, skills, values and are subject to evaluation by society. It is not the mere acquisition of knowledge that matters but how it utilized. Modern evaluation attempt to obtain as complete a picture as possible of the individual. The evaluation procedure is comprehensive if they utilize a variety of means and techniques in collection evaluation data.
An evaluation system is depended upon the adequacy of the planning which resulted in the selected or creation of curriculum programs, activities, procedures, resources and other elements to be evaluated. Evaluation systems are also dependent upon the utility and integrity of the specific data to be gathered, displayed and intepreted (practical skills, work at primary, secondary, and university exams). What criteria should be met to ensure validity and reliability?
An adequate evaluations system involves at least two levels of cooperation. The first concerns the integrity of the relationships established among the planning, implementing and evaluation phases of program building. Evaluation should be inbuilt in the planning and preparation states of curriculum development. The second concerns the comprehensive involvement of all parties, which have legitimate input or from the programs activities or its evaluation systems.
The determination of what constitutes success or failure requires the cooperative involvement of those who implement and are affected by the program and those who evaluate. There should be cooperation among the KIE curriculum developers, the Kenya National Examinations Council and the classroom teachers. There should be also cooperation among the psychologists, sociologists, philosopher, religious leaders, professors, trade unionists, curriculum developers, employers and teachers; and all other stakeholders.
Evaluation instruments should be functional, practical understood and acceptable by all teachers involved. There should be a closer relationship between the examination and the objectives which school education hopes to achieve, therefore, between the style of the