Curriculum Development: What bearing does the concept of Teacher Education have in the resultant teaching practices?

7b iii). Analyze the concept of Teacher Education in Kenya



Promotion Status

Many teachers in this country have been promoted from one grade to another after undergoing an in-service education programme. For instance, pre-service teachers who were initially trained as P1 have participated in a one-year in-service education course to prepare them to be qualified to handle the handicapped. After completing the programme they are awarded an S1 teachers certificate.

Graduates without professional training in education are recruited by T.S.C to teach in secondary schools. They are basically employed as untrained graduate teachers. The Ministry of Education requires that after teaching for a short duration, such untrained graduates should go for a one-year diploma course in education in a university.

After completing the course successfully their status is changed from untrained to qualified graduates. In addition to change of status, they also get the normal salary scale and increments given to other qualified graduate teachers.

More than 30,000 teachers are employed to teach in primary schools in Kenya. The ministry of education has been conducting in-service education programmes by correspondence to train the untrained teachers. After three years the untrained teachers, who complete the course successfully, are awarded certificates to indicate grade levels. For instance P1, P2 and P3 certificates are awarded. The certificates awarded correspond to salary scales from other teachers in the profession. Promotions and changes of status are major reasons why most untrained primary school teachers attend in-service courses. The second reason would be to secure permanent and pensionable employment status enjoyed by other qualified teachers employed by T.S.C. after gaining knowledge in methods of teaching in the primary schools.

Improved Job Performance

Many teachers select to attend shorter courses for one or two weeks for almost the same purpose. They want to increase, extend or expand their knowledge. This is quite true of teachers who trained more than ten years ago and are still teaching. Changes in the teaching profession are common. Most teachers want to improve their performance to cope with new changes in education. To this group of teachers, promotions or salary are not reasons for participation. For instance, new subjects such as social Education and Ethics, Business Education etc. have been introduced in primary school syllabus. Teachers without initial training of these subjects must participate in short in-service education courses to become qualified to teach them. Teachers advisory centers are most appropriate venues for organizing short in-service education courses for the improvement, increase and expansion of knowledge. This role is well played in districts with well-organized centres.

Increased Salary

Additional salary is not an incentive for participation in all types of in-service education courses. Salary in Kenya goes along with certificates and degrees obtained. Any in- service education programme may not be organized for the purposes of awarding extra or higher certificates or diplomas. Exceptions to this are the following programmes.

    1. One year course for P1 teachers to be qualified as S1 teachers for handicapped. Promotion from P1 to S1 teachers provides an essential salary increase.
    2. One year full time course for untrained graduate teachers. After successfully completing the course at a university they are awarded diplomas in education or (P.G.D.E) with salary increase or some adjustment.



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