8a iii). Dissect the various phases of evaluation.
Phases of Evaluation
There are three phases of evaluation which every teacher needs to know.
- Formative Evaluation
- Summative Evaluation
These terms are technical words to differentiate evaluation that takes place before instruction (pre-assessment), during instruction (formative), and after instruction (summative). Pre-assessment evaluation is provided before instruction that takes place before instruction to determine the starting point on an instructional program. It identifies need prerequisite skills and causes of learning difficulties and to place students in learning groups. Formative evaluation consists of those techniques of a formal and informal nature, including testing, that are used during the period of instruction. Progress tests are given in the classroom are a good illustration of formative evaluation.
Thorough formative evaluation teachers may diagnose student difficulties and take remedial action to help them overcome their difficulties before they are confronted with the terminal (summative) evaluation. Formative evaluation enables teachers to monitor their instruction so that they may keep it on course. It is also used to provide assessment of curriculum quality. It is conducted during the curriculum development process for the additional purpose of providing information that can be used to forma a better finished product. Thus formative evaluation takes place at a number of intermediate points during curriculum development process.
Summative evaluation is the assessment that takes place at the end of a course or unit. A final examination (post-test) means used for the summative evaluation of instruction. It major purpose is to find out whether the students have mastered the preceding instruction. A good teacher utilizes results of summative evaluation to revise his or her program and methodology for subsequent groups.