PHILOSOPHICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION: What do we mean by the terms “curriculum”,  “philosophy” and “foundation” ?



1a iii). Define the terms “curriculum”,  “philosophy” and “foundation”


  • Cunningham (1888) says, “Curriculum is a tool in the hands of artist (teacher) to mould his material (pupil) according to his ideals (aims, goals and objectives) in his studio (school).
  • Saylor (1988) says that curriculum is “A plan for providing sets of learning opportunities for persons to be educated.
  • Pratt (1988) “curriculum is organized set of formal educational or training –intentions”.
  • Wiles (1988) Views “curriculum as a plan for learning where by objectives determine what learning is important”.
  • Macdonald (1988) defines curriculum as a plan for action that is a plan which guides instruction.
  • Shepherd (1988) “the curriculum consists of on going experiences of children under the guidance of the school”.
  • Eisner (1988) points out that “curriculum is a programme a school offers to its students.”

Thus, on the basis of above definitions, one may conclude that curriculum refers to  all activities and experiences that we plan and organize for children inside and outside school for realizing the aims and goals of education.


A foundation is a base on which something is built. Education is built on some foundations. The foundations influence aspects of education. The foundations of education are historical, philosophical, sociological, and psychological foundations.


      What is philosophy?

  • It is a set of beliefs, religious or secular in accordance with which one tries to live.
  • The term philosophy has been derived from two Greek words “ philos” meaning, “love” and “Sophia” meaning “ wisdom”. Philosophy therefore means the love of wisdom.


  • The term sociology consists of two words: “Societus” a latin word which means companion or “associate” and “lagos” which means study or science. Thus sociology means the study of society.
  • Max Weber defined sociology as a science which interprets social behaviour with the aim of arriving at a casual explanation of human behaviour.



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