BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY
4b i). State the place of aesthetics and art in teaching.
4.5 Aesthetics (Ideal Beauty)
What is aesthetics? It is the study of beauty or art.
What is art?
- Art is a recreation of reality.
- Art is everything.
What is the purpose of art?
Its purpose is to concretize an abstraction to bring idea or emotion within the grasp of the observer. Art brings complex abstractions closer to the perceptual level, enabling people understand it. Art makes abstractions concrete. Art concretizes abstractions by creating an instance of it. Art embody the abstractions by creating an instance of it. It is this characteristic that art tries to produce in a single concrete form. The result is an embodiment of abstraction. The product only retains what the artist deems important. Since it consists of the essential aspects of the abstraction, and contains all of the essentials, it allows the abstraction to be grasped directly as an entity.
4.6 LOGIC (IDEAL REASONING)
What is logic?
- It is about how we think. It is the study of correct and systematic reasoning. We reason so that we may avoid ambiguity, false statement and so that we may communicate correctly.
- It is a science of reasoning.
- It is the order of thinking from general to specific or specific to general.
- Logic is the way to think so that we come to correct conclusions.
Importance of logic.
- Enables an individual to distinguish between true and false.
Without logic a person can not distinguish between true and false. He can not throw out bad ideas because he can not charge them as a bad. Without logic, the mind would be cluttered with so many absurdities and falsehood that if there were some truth, it would be lost in the garbage of contradictions and fuzzy thoughts.
- Enables an individual to avoid mistakes.
People make mistakes in reasoning. The mistakes in reasoning are known as fallacies. A fallacy is an argument that may appear to be true but after being closely examined it ends up to untrue. Fallacies occur when we make mistakes in the meaning of terms we use in reasoning or when we make misleading conclusions based on prior assumptions or stereotypes. Such assumptions may have nothing to do with the subject at hand. Knowing the kind of mistake one could make in reasoning helps him or her to avoid them. For example, if the best student in KSCE examination is from Nairobi Province, it is a fallacy to conclude that all students who sat for the KSCE exam passed the exams.
- Logic enhances correct reasoning that assist to eliminate confusion during teaching process.
- Assist in clarification of ideas, that is, knowledge of logic enhances justification of arguments during discussions.