Phonology of English Notes: Part 3.

 

3ai).

Chapter III:

INTONATION

 

  1. Introduction

In this module the topic of Intonation will merely be introduced and will not be dealt with in any detail.

Intonation is the study of the rises and falls in the pitch 9musical note) of the voice. We shall look only at four sorts of pitch-change which can happen on the primary – stressed syllable of a word-group.

These pitch0chmages help us to identify the primary-stressed syllable in the group. They also express shades of attitudinal and emotive meaning.

These meanings are very difficult to define objectively, and what appears below is only a crude and over-simplified summary of some of them.

2. Four types of pitch-change occurring on primary stressed syllables:

 

 

Image result for Four types of pitch-change occurring on primary stressed syllables:

3. ACTIVITY

 

SECTION I

The vowels [i:] as in “heel” contrasted with [i] as in “hill” Target: Most Kenyans especially Swahili; M.T. Speakers

  1.  Pronunciation

Both vowels are made with the front of the tongue, with spread (grinning) lip position. They differ in that /i:/ is made with

               a. front of tongue higher,

               b. lips more closely spread

               c. duration longer.

That is, /I:/ is rather more extreme in each of these three respects. It is produced with more muscular effort. Say it forcefully and make it really long, with special care before voiceless consonants as in word like feet, geese, beast etc.

These is shown on the following diagram:

 

2. First Language “equivalent”

If so, write examples below (in your own language). If NOT, write “no equivalent”

/i:/ “……………………………………………………………..”

 

/i/ “……………………………………………………………..”

 

in deciding whether your language has these sounds or not, remember that the two English vowels differ in quality (since their tongue and lip positions are slightly different) as well as in length.

Severe Kenyan languages do have these two sounds but write them both with the same letter “i”. This is true, for example, of most dialects of luo and of Meru. Other languages, like kikuyu, distinguish them by writing “i” versus “î”.

3.  Typical Spellings

 

 

Add two examples of your own to each list below.

 

/i:/ seem steal cede be grieve deceit trampoline
bleed heat regent me field receive kerosine
feet lean obedient we thief ceiling marine
……….. ……….. ……….. ……….. ……….. ……….. ………..
……….. ……….. ……….. ……….. ……….. ……….. ………..

 

/i/ sit syndrome
sinner lyric
blister sorry
……….. ………..
……….. ………..

4. Exceptional Spellings:

Study these and add extra examples if you like:

 

/i:/ key quay caesar foetus people
/i/ sieve women pretty busy build

 

5. Test

 

a) breathe / / g) Kin / /
b) sieve / / h) deceive / /
c) machine / / i) hymn / /
d) brief / / j) busy / /
e) devious / / k) sister / /
f) quay / / l) foetus / /
Use dictionary to check your answers…

ACTIVITY

 

Pronounce all these words with a friend, preferably of a different
mother-tongue community
The word /i:/
1.   read 7. meat 13. heal 19. peel
2.   speak 8. stream 14. teeth 20. deed
3.   deem 9. seem 15. meal 21. queen
4.   squeak 10. feed 16. greet 22. squeeze
5.   plead 11. scrim 17. lead
6.   seed 12. team 18. preen

The word /i/

1. rid 7. spit 13. hill 19. pill
2. spick 8. sprint 14. tit 20. did
3. dim 9. tinkle 15. mill 21. scribble
4. quick 10. fiddle 16. grit 22. squid
5. sin 11. scrim 17. squint
6. pip 12. tint 18. lid

The Minimal Pairs

Before repeating the minimal pairs, give yourself a listening test. Do not proceed until you are able to pass this test with full marks.

1. rid read 6. begin to seek
2. speak pick 7. A Creeping feeling
3. dim deem 8. Dinner for three
4. scream scrim 9. A defeat indeed
5. hill heal 10. Swimming in the Stream

The Phrases

  1. Quick reading
  2. Needles and Pins
  3. Simple speech
  4. Trees on the hill
  5. The people’s inn

The Sentences

  1. I believe in peace
  2. This is the speech we printed for the principal speaker
  3. We can see six people sitting in the tree
  4. Pick me a seed with the tweezers
  5. She feeds him his meal in the evenings
  6. He squeezed his fist into the breach
  7. Did she read him the speech?
  8. It is a sin to steal
  9. His teeth were green when he grinned
  10. Healing a sick people is not an easy thing 

 

The Sentences The Vowel Sounds /i:/ and /i/

 

  1. I believe in peace
  2. This is the speech we printed for the principal speaker
  3. We can see six people sitting in the tree
  4. Pick me a seed with the tweezers
  5. She feeds him his meal in the evenings
  6. Peter hit me with a piece of cheese
  7. He squeezed his fist quickly into the breach
  8. Did she read him the speech?
  9. It is a sin to steal.
  10. His teeth were green when he grinned
  11. Healing sick people is not an easy thing
  12. He is a preacher of no mean ability

 

 

SECTION II


Vowels /e/ as in “bed” contrasted with /æ/ as in “bad”

Target: Swahili M.T. Speakers

 

1. Pronunciation

Both vowels are made with the front of the tongue. For most students, /a/ is the more difficult sound. Because it is a front vowel, it has spread lip position. Concentrate on this, making a conscious effort to stretch your lips into a grin

each time you make the sound. The vowel sounds /e/ and /æ/

2. First language “equivalents”

 

 

If your language has either of these sounds, give examples. If not write “no equivalent”. Note that only a few Kenyan languages (e.g. some dialects of kalenjin) have a near equivalent for the English sound /a/

/e/ “……………………………………………………………”

 

/æ/ “…………………………………………………………….”

3. Typical Spellings

 

 

Add two examples of your own to each list below.

/e/ pen breath /a/ chat
penny feather chatter
fester breakfast masticate
…………….. ………………. ……………….
……………… ………………. ………………..

 

 

4. Exceptional Spellings

 

Study and add extra examples of your own if you like.

/e/ friend heifer /æ/ * plait
* leopard leisure * plaid
many says
bury said ……………….
……………… ………………. ………………..

 

5. Test

(answers at the bottom of section 2 script)

 

a) Measure / /
b) Plait / /
c) says / /
d) Breakfast / /
e) Said / /
f) Bury / /
g) Hammer / /
h) Bestial / /
i) Pleasure / /
j) Plan / /
k) Leisure / /
l) Maths / /

UNIT 2

The Words /e/

bed ,set  pent spell quench  bend fresh tell stretch telly else stellar laed step press pestle ken rent treble met friend tamper

The words /æ/

pant patch banned panther bad cattle batch sat stamp rant plait tamper battle scatter camp mat sand can match lad prattle tally

The Minimal Pairs

Before repeating the minimal pairs, give yourself a listening test. Do not proceed until you are able to pass this test with all full marks.

1. bed bad 6. led led
2. sat set 7. rentrant
3. pent bend 8. tamper temper
4. band bend 9. ken can
5. telly tally 10. mat met


The Phrases


      1. A bad set of stamps

 

      1. A batch of letters

 

      1. Bed and breakfast at the camp
      2. A press attack

 

      1. Fresh bands of man

 

      1. Friends in battle
      2. Scattering the panthers

 

      1. Stretching hands and bending
      2. Plaited mats for a bed

 

      1. A spell of bad weather
      2. Selling sand to get red pens

The sentences

  1. Stella patted my pet cat on the back with a red feather
  2. Let the men stand in the sand
  3. The lad prossed the mat into his friend’s hands
  4. The bad-tempered panther attacked the cattle at the river bend
  5. He sent back the letter with a set of fresh stamps
  6. We have a bed, a telly and a kettle in our camp
  7. I sent him packing with a rent in his best hat
  8. At the onset of battle, the band of cattle men scattered
  9. Tell him to stop prattling about beds and empty cans
  10. The weather was bad, nevertheless the match was better attended
  11. When I met the bandsmen, they were in bad temper
  12. His panting friend sat on the bed to rest his legs

 

Answers to work-sheet tests:

/e/ a, c, d, e, f, h, I, k

/æ/ b, g. j. l

SECTION III

Vowels // as in “but” contrasted with /æ/ as in “bat” Target: Most Kenyan Speakers

COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH

The words //

PRONUNCIATION DRILL:

SECTION 3

  1. bud
  2. nut
  3. hunt
  4. bun
  5. punt
  6. hut
  7. fun
  8. stuck
  9. flush
  10. rough
  11. come
  12. pass
  13. butter
  14. tumble
  15. shuffle
  16. rustle
  17. tough
  18. bunch
  19. trouble
  20. funny
  21. hungry
  22. duck

The Words /æ/

1. pant 9. stamp 17. sand
2. patch 10. rant 18. can
3. band/banned 11. plait 19. match
4. panther 12. tamper 20. lad
5. bad 13. battle 21. prattle
6. cattle 14. scatter 22. tally
7. batch 15. camp
8. sat 16. mat

The Minimal Pairs

  1. bud – bad
  2. hat – hut
  3. punt – pant
  4. flush – flash
  5. sully – sally
  6. compass – campus
  7. stack – stuck
  8. fun – fan
  9. ban – bun


The Phrases

  1. A rubber stamp
  2. A country of bandits
  3. An attack by cattle rustlers
  4. A bed cut on the hand
  5. Pancakes for supper
  6. A land of milk and honey
  7. Scattering the panthers
  8. To hunt for a candle
  9. A damp mat in a hut
  10. To touch the fan
  11. A bundle of bad luck
  12. To tan without sun-burn

 

The Sentences

  1. This shack is sadly lacking in comfort
  2. The company has sacked the managing director for slackness
  3. I cut the back of my hand on a rusty can.
  4. Shut the door of the hut and turn off the fan
  5. The band of rustlers lost their saddle bags
  6. The lads rubbed the fat into their cricket bats
  7. The bad-mannered man dumped the bags and ran
  8. It’s not much fun eating damp buns with no butter
  9. At the onset of battle, the band of cattlemen scattered.
  10. His panting mother sat down to rest her back
  11. The bundle of muddy sacks was shoved into the trunk
  12. Standing on the top rung of the ladder he hacked at it with his axe.

SECTION IV

Vowels // as in “but” contrasted with /a:/ as in “bard” Target: Most Kenyan Speakers

Work-sheet for Section 4

 

  1. Pronunciation

 

 

Both vowels are made fairly far back in the mouth, with neutral lip position (i.e don’t grin for these). The Vowel /a:/ differs from // in being

a. much more open,

b. much longer

 

To make a really open /a:/ sound, try yawning as you say it.

 

Be especially careful to make your /a:/ long enough before voiceless consonants.

 

E.g. in words like cart, pass, raft, past, bath, ask.

 

The vowel sounds // and /a:/

 

Place // and /a:/ on this diagram:

2. First language “equivalent”

 

If possible, give First language example. Otherwise, write “no equivalent”.

Remember that English // and /a:/ differ in quality as well as in length.

 

// “……………………………………………………………….”

 

/a:/ “……………………………………………………………….”

3. Typical Spellings

 

 

Add two examples of your own to each list below:

// sun son young /a:/ army
butter compass touch card
rustle worry country party
munch tongue courage bar
mummy mother tough marvel
…………… ……………. …………… ……………
…………… ……………. …………… ……………

4. Some other spellings of /a:/

In many word, the following spellings indicate /a:/. Add two examples of your own to each list.

calf dance rather past raft
psalm can’t father asking after
alms answer lath basket staff
…………… ……………. …………… ……………… ……………
…………… ……………. …………… ……………… ……………

Be careful, however, because the same spellings can indicate /a/, as in the following words:

alp manse gather mass baffle

 

5. Exceptional Spellings

 

study these and add extra examples of your own if you like.

// blood /a:/ moustache laugh clerk ma
does graph aunt heart pa
hearth

6.

a) garden / / g) can’t / /
b) laughter / / h) bath / /
c) muster / / i) rough / /
d) worry / / j) monkey / /
e) glance / / k) tummy / /
f) maths / / l) catholic / /


COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH

Pronunciation Drill: Section 4 The Vowel sounds // and /a:/ The Word //

cut one butt muck bun fun junk stuck flush come

touch must truck bunch love dunce rough chuckle

duck stunt tough rustle

The Words /a:/

dance branch start cart bark calm tar dark ask mark heart

The Phrases:

  1. To cut the cards
  2. A cartful of muck
  3.  Ducks on a farm
  4. Fun at the dance
  5. To cut a tough branch
  6. A dart stuck in bark
  7. A rough start
  8. Junk in the farm-yard
  9. Apart from the plush
  10. To thrust the arms apart
  11. Rushing into the barn
  12. A good judge of fast casts

The Sentences

  1. One dance is enough for a start
  2. It was a calm night, with not a rustle from a branch
  3. I asked him for his farm truck as my cart was stuck in the mud
  4. He is not a hound, but he rushes about snarling and barking like one.
  5. After parking his car in the sun he left the engines running
  6. With a bark the pup jumped at her, but she shucked and went in darning
  7. Past the archway was a puddle into which they shoved the tough barman
  8. We shunted the trucks together farther along the branch line
  9. Laughing heartily, the hunter struck the buck on the rump with the butt of his gun
  10. He hung the chart on the most with tough string
  11. With a rush they danced into the center in a tight bunch
  12. A mark cut on the face is not such a funny thin to laugh at.

SECTION V

Vowels //: The Schwa used in unstressed syllables only Target: All Kenyan Speakers

  1. Pronunciation:

The vowel // has neutral lip position, like //, and is made with almost the same part of the tongue.

However, it is

    1. even shorter
    2. less distinct
    3. less open

Fix in your mind the last sound in the word “farmer”, and use this as a guide. The vowel // is used only in unstressed syllables. It is so short and indistinct that in many words it is hardly audible at all. This is especially true before /l/, /r/ and

/n/. For practice, try leaving it out together, pronouncing, for instance, the words “faculty”, “answerable” and “contain” as fac’lty, ans’rable and c’ntain respectively.

2.First Language “equivalents

it is rather unlikely that you First Language has the sound //. However, if it does, fill in an example. If not, write “no equivalent”

// “……………………………………………………………….”

3. Spellings

 

 

The “reduced” vowel // is used in unstressed syllables, where it is represented by very many different spellings (standing for “full” vowel pronunciations used in older English)

was, had, have, does, of, for, an, are, and, but……………..

To get an impression of the variety of spellings involved, listen to the tape again, studying the script. Then take the following test.

4.  Test

 

 

Underline all instances of the vowel // in the following sentences.

Afterwards, check your answers with a dictionary

  1. My brothers and sisters arrived punctually on that occasion
  2. We shall not allow the faculty to get away with such a measure
  3. They concealed the teacher under the stretcher
  4. The cathedral is a stronghold of Catholicism
  5. I asked the magician for my horoscope
  6. What is the difference between a steamer and a chariot?
  7. The speaker pronounced his consonants very clearly
  8. Permit me to offer you a cigarette on the next occasion.

 

COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH

Pronunciation Drill: Section 5 The “reduced” vowel //

The words (1)

attach occur accept obtrude arrive occasion 

about offend around allow acquit assist

The Word (2)

  1. bestow
  2. cathedral
  3. Catholicism
9.  Brazil

10. domain

11. horoscope

17. permit

18. masterpiece

19. stupendous

4. contain 12. buffoon 20. marvelous
5. answerable 13. taboo 21. ravenous
6. consonant 14. faculty 22. cigarette
7. combine 15. chariot
8. conceal 16. felony

the Word (3)

1. speaker 7. wrestler 13. feather
2. brother 8. offender 14. colour
3. questioner 9. teacher 15. register
4. sister 10. rather 16. stretcher
5. measure 11. offer 17. protector
6. particular 12. minister 18. emperor

 

The phrases:

  • accept the measures 
  • particular occasion
  • bestow an honour
  • acquit the offender
  • Brazilian taboo
  • answerable to the faculty
  • register the colour
  • my mother’s horoscope
  • marvelous wrestler
  • to permit a felony
  • a ravenous eater
  • my brother’s keeper

The sentences:

      1. My brothers and sisters arrived punctually on that occasion
      2. We shall not allow the faculty to get away with such a measure
      3. They concealed the teacher under the stretcher
      4. The cathedral is a stronghold of Catholicism
      5. I asked the magician for my horoscope
      6. What is the difference between a steamer and a chariot?
      7. The speaker pronounced his consonants very clearly
      8. Permit me to offer you a cigarette on the next occasion.

 

 

SECTION VI

 

The Novels / :/ + /a:/ Target: all Kenya speeches

COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH

Worksheet for Section 6

The vowel sounds / :/ and /a:/

  1. Pronunciation

Both vowels are long, with neutral lip position.

For / :/ stretch mouth wide open (as in unit 3),

For , keep mouth closed as much as possible. Don’t round your lips or you will get a sound like /o:/ instead. Just keep the lips in neutral position and almost touching each other. Be careful to make your / :/ really long, with special care before voiceless consonants in words like skirt, purse, mirth, first, etc.

2. First Language “equivalents”

Give first language examples if possible. Otherwise write “no equivalent”.

 

Note:

(a) The vowel / :/ occurs in very few Kenyan languages

 

(b) You have already considered /a:/ in unit 3

 

         / :/ “……………………………..”

 

        / a:/“……………………………..”

 

 

3. Typical spellings of / :/ (for / a:/ revise Unit 3)

Add two examples of your own to each list below.

/ :/ Fir Fur herd Learn Word Third Burn Were Search Worship

…………….   …………… ……………..  …………. …………..

 

…………….   …………… ……………..  …………. …………..

4. Exceptional spellings of / :/

Study this and add extra examples of your own if you like.

/ :/ Journal      myrrh     Colonel

Journey        myrtle

Scourge    Courteous

In revising Unit 3, note carefully that the words “heart”, “hearth” and clerk” are pronounced with / a: / not with / :/

5. ACTIVITY

COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH

Pronunciation Drill: Unit 6 The Vowel Sounds / : / and / a: / Introductory Minimal Pairs

  1. dart dirt

          cart curt

          barn burn
    2.  fast first

         heart hurt

         person person
The Words / : /

1 Dirt 12 Churn
2 Hurt 13 Alert
3 Church 14 Turn
4 Third 15 Purple
5 Blurt 16 Word
6 Girl 17 Occur
7 Squirt 18 Squirm
8 Burn 19 Pearl
9 Person 20 Hurl
10 First 21 Assert
11 Bird 22 flirt

The Minimal Pairs

 

1. dirt dart 7. turn tarn
2. heart hurt 8. star stir
3. burn barn 9. pert part
4. parson – person 10 cart curt
5. first fast 11. car cur

The Phrases

  1. A burning barn
  2. A church without a parson
  3. The third person to start complaining
  4. To assert oneself without hurting others
  5. To be alert as a bird on a branch
  6. To blurt out thoughts as they occur
  7. Hurling dirty words at the stars
  8. Squirming like a worm in the grass
  9. A hard-hearted girl in purple
  10. To make a curt remark
  11. Countless burrs sticking to his smart shirt
  12. To squirt jets of tar onto a burning car.

 

 

 

The Sentences

  1. Words don’t hurt, but burns do.
  2. We heard nothing, though we learnt that the burglars made quite a stir in the village.
  3. The wheels of the cart churned up mud for miles.
  4. She had pearls in her purse but they did not belong to her.
  5. After the third day without water, the girls began to realise that they might die of thirst.
  6. We must not take so much dirt on our feet into the church.
  7. Being a timid person it did not occur to her to assert her authority.
  8. The parson enjoys putting flirts to shame in her sermons.
  9. The angry farmer cursed at the birds for eating his crops.
  10. They hurled the churn into the burning barn.
  11. I blurted out the first world that occurred to me.
  12. We were parted for thirty days and during that time she started to flirt with another person.

SECTION VII

Vowels /o/ and /o:/ Target: all Kenya speakers

COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH

Worksheet for Unit 7

 

  1. Pronunciation

 

Both vowels are made with the back of the tongue, with rounded lips. They differ in that / o / is shorter and much more open.

For / o /, therefore, concentrate on stretching your mouth wide open (keeping your lips slightly rounded) and making a very short sound. For / o: /, the lips are rounded more closely (but not too closely or it will sound like (/ ou /). Be careful to make it really long, especially before voiceless consonants in words like fourth, torso, borstal, etc.

 

First Language “Equivalents”

 

If possible, give First Language examples. Otherwise, write “no equivalent”. Remember that the two English vowels differ in quality as well as in Length.

/ o /

 

“…………………………………………………………………………….….”

 

/ o: /

 

“………………………………………………………………………………..”

 

2. Typical Spellings

 

 

/ o / Cot Lost Rotten

…………….
…………….

What Wasp Quality

……………….
………………

 
Note: Be careful with words in “…ost” some have / ou / rather than / o /. Eg. Most, host, post, ghost.
/ o: / For Ford Fore

………………
………………

Door Pour Roar

………………
………………

War Ward Quarter

……………
……………

Note: be careful with these too when a vowel follows. The pronunciation is then usually /o/ Eg. Moral, porridge, warrant.

But note choral, forum, etch with /o:/

Also notice that some words

have alternative pronunciations in /o/ or /o:/. Eg: “fault” (/fo:ot/ or /folt/)

Fauna taunt taught

……………..
……………..

Bald Talk Ball

……………..
………………

Ought Sought Brought

…………..
…………..


3. Exceptional Spellings
/ o / because sausage

Cauliflower

cough trough yacht /o:/ water broad

 

4. Test

 

 

Write /o/ or /o:/ against each of the following

(a)
(b)
(c)
ball

quart quantity

/
/
/
/
/
/
  1. horrid
  1. floor
  1. swan
/
/
/
/
/
/
(d) boar / / (m) water / /
(e) quarantine / / (n) ore / /
(f) fawn / / (o) sausage / /
(g) swarm / / (p) fraught / /
(h) authority / / (q) cough / /
(i) port / / (r) yacht / /

COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH

 

Pronunciation Drill: Script for Unit Seven The vowels /o/ and o:/

 

The words /o/

 

1. Pot 12 Tot
2 Lock 13. Cloth
3. Plot 14. Shot
4. Cod 15. Rock
5. Clock 16. Knot
6. Shock 17. Smock
7. Knotty 18. Shop
8. Wash 19. Cot
9. Stop 20. Sock
10. Rot 21 Plod
11. cock 22 Pock

 

The words /o:/

 

1. Fought 12 Talk
2 Pork 13. Fort
3. Port 14. Water
4. Naughty 15. Taught
5. Daughter 16. Wrought
6. Short 17. Jaunt
7. Walk 18. Naught
8. Cord 19. Tall
9. Wall 20. Caught
10. Daunt 21 Chalk

 


 

11. Torn 22 Faul t /o:/ or /o/
The Minimal Pairs
Before repeating the minimal pairs give yourself a listening test. Do not
proceed until you are able to pass this test with full marks.
1 Pot Port 7 Knot Naught
2 Cord Cod 8 Caught Cot
3 Knotty Naughty 9 pock pork
4 Wraught Rot

 

5 Toto Taught
6 short shot

 

The Phrases

 

1. To call for a pot of broth 7. Pieces of cod and pork in a pot
2. Washing cloth with dirty water 8. A fort built upon rock
3. A length of cord full of knots 9. A bottle without a stopper
4. Ar too much talk and chalk 10. To stop talking shop
5. Faulty (/o:/ or /o/ clocks and locks. 11. A short walk to the shop
6. To stop rocking the cot 12. A smock hanging on the wall

 

The Sentences

 

    1. I caught my naughty daughter rocking the baby’s cot.

 

    1. The pallbearers stopped for a short rest.

 

    1. I taught him all about repairing clocks and locks.

 

    1. He washed down the pork with several tots of gin.

 


    1. They fought on undaunted even after their commander was shot dead.

 

    1. There is a lot of cloth in John’s shop.

 

    1. We must not stop at anything to capture the fort.

 

    1. Despite the shock of the news he was able to continue his talk for a short while longer.
    2. I have a plot of land very near the airport.

 

    1. I have bought an acre of rocky hilltop.

 

    1. As we entered the court we heard several shots.

 

    1. in the box was a pair of shorts a smock and several pairs of torn socks.

 

Answers to work sheet test: /o/ c, e, h, j, l, o, q, r.

 

/o:/ a, b, d, f, g, I, k, m, n, p.

 


SECTION VIII

 

Vowels /u/, /u:/ or /ju:/

 

Objectives:

 

COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH

 

Worksheet for Section 8

 

 

  • Pronunciation

 

 

Both vowels are made with the back of the tongue. They differ in that /u:/ is made with.

    1. Lips more closely rounded

 

    1. Back of the tongue higher

 

    1. Duration longer

 

That is /u:/ is more extreme than /u/ in each of these three respects. It is produced with more effort, while /u/ is more relaxed. (cf / i:/ & /i/ in Unit one)

 


 

  • First Language “Equivalents”

 

 

Give examples from your First Language or write “no equivalent”. Remember that the two English sounds differ in quality as well as quantity. (Since one has a different tongue and lip position to the other).

/u/  “…………………………………………………………………………………

 

/u:/ “…………………………………………………………………………………

 

 

  • Here are some typical spellings.

 

 

Write them under the appropriate headings.

 

Good, pull, fool, prudent, clue, blew, student, cue, new, view

 

/u/ /u:/ /ju:/

 

Here are some less common spellings. Do the same with them, adding extra examples if you like.

Could, should, would, wolf, bosom, group, through, canoe, tomb, two, move, sleuth, fruit, adieu, queue.

/u/ /u:/ /ju:/

 

Three useful rules:

 

  1. “oo” spells /u/ in book look, etc (before “k”) and in the following: foot, soot, good, hood, wood, wool, stood, (room).
  2. “u” spells /u/ in put, bull, pull, puss, push, full, fulsome, cushion, sugar, pulpit, butcher, cuckoo.
  3. The sequence /ju:/ does not occur after /r/ or after /1/. Therefore, the following words, for example, are pronounced with simple /u:/, not with

/ju:/: prude, rude, rule, rue, grew, crude….

 

Luner, blue, sleuth, sluice, blew, plume, flew, clue…

 


 

There are very few clear exceptions, but note lewd /1ju:d/. a number of these words have alternative pronunciations. The pronunciations given above are however used by the majority of speakers.

Pronunciation Drill: Script for Unit 8.

 

The Vowel sounds /u/ and /u:/

 

The words /u/

 

1 Book 9 Broom 17 Nook
2 Good 10 Stood 18 Cook
3 Room 11 Full 19 Stock
4 Shook 12 Rook 20 Brook
5 Pull 13 Wool
6 Crook 14 Look
7 Soot 15 Forsook
8 took 16 Full

 

The Words /u:/

 

1 Boot 9 Smooth 17 Doom
2 Stoop / steep 10 School 18 Troop / troupe
3 Food 11 Stool 19 Fool
4 Soup 12 Blue / blew 20 Shoe
5 Group 13 Cool 21 Droop
6 Tomb 14 Two 22 Chew
7 Spoon 15 soon
8 Moon 16 Loot

 


Words Containing the Sequence /-ju:-/

 

1 Dupe 7 Duke 13 Stew
2 Mute 8 Deluge 14 Cue / queue
3 Dune 9 Due / dew 15 Delude
4 Fume 10 Tune 16 induce
5 Student 11 Assume
6 Few 12 suit
(ju:/ or /u:/)

 

The Phrases

 

1 A room full of looted books 7 Wearing shoes to school
2 Cooks who cannot make soup 8 A crooked queue of students in blue
suits
3 A group of fuming dukes 9 A few pairs of shoes and boots
4 Looking coolly at the moon 10 Duping a drooling fool with smooth
words
5 Two bulls chewing the cud 11 A spoonful of steaming stew
6 Stooks of hay soon to be burnt 12 School text-books full of catchy tunes

 


The Sentences

 

  1. The duke took refuge behind a stook of hay when the bull charged at him.

 

  1. The troupe of student dancers performed to tunes on a lute.

 

  1. Few cooks, if any, can make stew from soot and boot polish.

 

  1. Fuming, he threw the broom on the step.

 

  1. We knew there were two tombs under the sand dunes.

 

  1. Nothing could induce him to look at the moon, which had come out in full splendour.
  2. Their spirits drooping, the troops followed the duke as if to their doom.

 

  1. A huge bull stood in the middle of the brook.

 

  1. He pulled on his boots after putting on his suit.

 

  1. The room was full of fumes.

 

  1. This is good food even for a duke.

 

  1. The students assumed that they would get help soon.

 

Answers to worksheet test: /u/ a, c, e, f, h, k.

 

/u:/ b, d, g, I, j, l.

 


SECTION IX

 

General Vowel Practice

 

Ob

 

ject

 

ive

 

s

 

i.

 


COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH

 

Worksheet for Section 9 General Vowel Practice

 

 

  • First Language “equivalents”

 

 

On the diagram above, circle the vowels for which you think there is no

 

equivalent in your First Language. Concentrate on practising these. Remember, though, that even when approximately the same sound occurs in

your own first Language there may still be the problem of making the equivalent English sound Long enough (in the case of /i/; /u:/, /a:/, / ə: / and

/ / in closed syllables, especially before voiceless consonants.

 


 

 

  • Spellings

 

 

Revise the typical and less typical spellings for each of the vowels practised so far. Then take the two self-tests below. (First, however, fold over the answers given at the bottom of the sheet).

 

Test A: Write down the phonemic symbol for the vowel in the underlined part of each of these words:

 

  1. What / / (j) first / /  (s) sugar / /

 

  1. Said / / (k) part / /  (t) attack (unstressed) / /

 

  1. sunk / / (l) eat / /  (u) emulation (unstressed) / /

 

  1. brew / / (m) Caeser / /  (v)  require (unstressed) / /

 

  1. build / / (n) money / /  (w) cabbage (unstressed) / /

 

  1. calm / / (o) heifer / / (x) stood / /

 

  1. measure / / (p) collar / /

 

  1. heart / / (q) colour / /

 

  1. foetus / / (r) bought / /

 


Test B: check your answers and revise before doing test B.

 

  1. machine / / (j) tough / /  (s) laugh / /

 

  1. kernel / / (k0 leopard / /  (t) come / /

 

  1. key / / (l) leisure / / (u) ask / /

 

  1. seive / / (m) pulpit / /  (v)  added (unstressed) / /

 

  1. Could / / (n) four / / (w) Stupendous

(Unstressed) / /

 

  1. Caught / / (o) noon / / (x) particular

(Unstressed)   / /

(g) Because / / (p) word / /
(h) Colonel / / (q) dance / /
(i) Does / / (r) says / /

 


COMMUNICATION SKILL IN ENGLISH

 

Pronunciation Drill: Unit Eight

 

  1. A short piece of dirty string.

 

  1. People gone mad with thirst

 

  1. Shoes full of cobwebs and dust.

 

  1. Doors jammed shut for weeks.

 

  1. Important things to be done first

 

  1. Cars whizzing past at a terrible speed

 

  1. Morning and evening news in brief

 

  1. A good portion of mutton

 

  1. A universe whirling with suns and moons

 

  1. Attending church meetings on Sunday afternoons

 

  1. A cut and thrust argument in the press

 

  1. To tackle a problem with courage.

 

  1. Masters and servants all drinking happily and singing

 

  1. Love of money, envy of one’s kith and kin

 

  1. Fat little men in black hats

 

  1. Dozens of bottles full of green water

 

  1. A pleasant chat under the tree

 

  1. Beautiful girls carrying pots of water

 

  1. Sharp pencils belonging to my brother

 

  1. Eating non-stop for two months and half

 

  1. A battle of wits at a seminar of professors

 

  1. Blushing violently at the judge’s words.

 

  1. Fishing in deep waters.

 


  1. Whirlwinds that carry everything like straw before them

 

  1. Farmers returning to work in the fields

 

  1. Booby traps in the cupboard

 

  1. Carrying on as drunkards do

 

  1. A heavy burden to carry

 

  1. Feeling dizzy after a long distance walk

 

  1. Teams of horses drinking from troughs

 

  1. A disheartening examiners’ report

 

  1. Feeding children on milk and hone

 

  1. External commitments difficult to meet

 

  1. Doing one’s duty readily

 

  1. Breakfast and lunch and dinner

 

  1. College friends coming to tea at school.

 

  1. Tons and tons of sawdust

 

  1. Dew on leaves and on the roofs

 

  1. The hall warden asleep in his room

 

  1. Sons and daughters quarrelling among themselves

 

  1. Falling rocks and heavy trucks

 

  1. Never giving others any attention

 

  1. Lorry engines sitting on blocks of wood

 

  1. To read with conviction

 

  1. Telling stories to children on TV

 

  1. Hand-bags bought for a few shillings each

 

  1. Standing still or walking fast

 

  1. One, two, three, four, six, seven, ten and twenty.

 


 


SECTION X

 

Diphthongs /ai/, /au/ and /oi/ Target: all Kenyan speakers

 

Objectives:

 

COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH

 

Worksheet for Section 10 The Diphthongs: ai/, /au/ and /oi/

 

 

  • Pronunciation

 

 

Each diphthong consists of two short vowel sounds, closely knit together. Thus,

 

not /a – I/ /a – u:/, /o – I:/ but /ai/, /au/, /oi/.

 

Together, the two parts of the diphthong have about the same length as one long vowel.

Concentrate on the “closely knit” nature

 

of these diphthongs. Be careful with

 

/au/, however, if you slur the two parts

 

together too much, the result may

 

become indistinguishable from /oi/.

 


 


 

  • First Language “equivalents”

 

 

Many Kenyan languages do not have diphthongs in the 2closely knit” sense

 

described above, except perhaps in very quick or casual speech. Bearing this in

 

mind, decide whether your own First Language does have equivalents to the three English diphthongs (in slow, careful speech), give examples below, otherwise, write “no equivalent”.

/ai/ “………………………………………………….”

 

/au/“………………………………………………….”

 

/oi/ “………………………………………………….”

 

It may be that though one or more of these diphthongs doesn’t occur in slow, careful speech, it could nevertheless be used for other quick or casual

pronunciations for your First Language. If so, write a note against it to this effect.

 

 

  • Spellings

 

 

Here are some typical spellings of /ai/, /au/ and /oi/: Write them out in three columns under the appropriate headings below:

Chide, die, try, town, loud, coin, boy.

 

/au/ /ai/ /oi/

 

Hear are some less typical spellings. Do the same with them. Add extra examples if you like.

Height, sleight, right, tight, eye, buy, guy, bough, plough, drought, buoy.

 

/ai/ /au/ /oi/

 


COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH

 

unciati
is Unit w
on Drill: Unit 10
e shall deal with the diph
thongs /ai/, au/ and /o i/
ords
1
/ai/
Eye
9 Fight
2 Bicycle 10 Shine
3 Rice 11 Pipe
4 Dine 12 Wife
5 Bright 13 Time

Pron In th The W

 

    1. Type 14 Fine

 

    1. Kind 15 Blind

 

    1. pin 16 strike

 

The Words /au/

 

1 Shout 9 Proud
2 Plough 10 Bout
3 Dhow 11 Trounce
4 Foul / fowl 12 Down
5 Howl 13 Crowd
6 Town 14 Bough / bow
7 Bounce 15 Shout
8 Count 16 Doubt

 


 

The Words /ai/
1
Boy / buoy 9 Coin / coign
2 Avoid 10 Toy
3 Deploy 11 Spoil
4 Groin 12 Voice
5 Boil 13 Noise
6 Employ 14 Point
7 Choice 15 Moist
8 Joint 16 Foil

 

The Phrases


  1. shouting and fighting like silly boys
  1. to deploy scout for a fight

 

  1. shiny toys bought in town


  1. to strike oil 12. plough-boys on strike

 

  1. to have a fine voice 13. to allow the printing in fine type

 

  1. a bright coin on the counter 14. fowls running around in the


  1. a loud shout

 

  1. dhows riding on the tide

 

  1. to avoid the evil eye

 

  1. the bough of a pine tree

sunshine

 

  1. boys bouncing up and down in a kind of game
  2. to be proud of one’s wife


  1. pointing at the blind mouse

 


SECTION XI

 

Diphthongs /ei/, /ou/ and /ui/

 

Target: all Kenyan speakers

 

Objectives

 

COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH

 

Worksheet for Section 10 The Diphthongs /ei/, /ou/ and /ui/

 

 

  • Pronunciation

 

 

Again, each diphthong consists of two short vowel sounds, closely knit together. Thus, not /e: – i:/, /i – ui/, /u: – i:/ but /ei/, /u/, /ui/.

Together, the two parts of each diphthong have about the same length as one long vowel.

Concentrate on the “closely knit” nature of these diphthongs. Be careful however with /ei/ and /u/. if you slur the parts of these together too much, the results may sound too much like / / and /oi/ respectively.

 


 

  • First Language – “Equivalents”

 

 

Bearing in mind the “closely knit” nature of the English diphthongs, decide

 

whether your First Lanauge has near equivalents to /ei/, /u/, and /ui/. If so, give examples, otherwise write “no equivalent”.

/ei/ “……………………………………”

 

/u/  “/……………………………………”

 

/ui/ “/……………………………………”

 

casual pronunciation , add a note to this effect.
e typical spellings of /ei/, /u/, /u/ and ui/. Write them

If any of these diphthongs don’t occur in careful speech but could nevertheless be heard in fast,

 

  • Spellings

 

 

Here are som out in three

 

columns under the appropriate headings below.

 

Face, day, wait, go, hole, boat, slow, ruin.

 

/ei/ /ou/ /ui/

 

here are some less frequent spellings. Do the same with them, adding extra examples if you like.

Toe, soul, dough, beau, mauve, depot, a, straight, grey, neigh,  break, steak, great.

/ei/ /ou/ /ui/

 


COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH

 

Pronunciation Drill: Section 11

 

The Diphthongs /ei/, /ou/ and /ui/4

 

In this Unit we shall deal with the diphthongs /ei/, /ou/ and /ui/

 

The Words /ei/

 

1 Pay 11 Spade
2 Raid 12 Taint
3 Delay 13 Break / brake
4 Day 14 Stale
5 Chain 15 Rain / rein
6 Make 16 Feign / fain/ fane
7 Pain 17 Dainty
8 Change 18 Quake
9 Shade 19 Paint
10 take 10 Faint / feint

 

The Words with /ou/

 

1 Boat 11 Float
2 Goat 12 Hold
3 Load 13 Explode
4 Choke 14 Demote
5 Note 15 Connote
6 Total 16 Dome
7 Moat / mote 17 Smoke
8 Stoke 18 Soul / sole
9 Bloat 19 Croak
10 pole 10 show

 


The Diphthong /ui/

 

The diphthong /ui/, made up of the vowel sounds /u/ and /i/ occurs in very few words, like ruin / ruin/, we shall note therefore, spend much time on it beyond pointing out that the first element is /u/ and not /u:/. Examples: ruin /ruin/, ruining / ruining/, ruination / ruineisn/.

 

Phrases Containing the Diphthongs /ei/ and /ou/.

 

    1. To take note of a delay in payment

 

    1. Painting the face to look like a goat’s

 

    1. To explode with rage

 

    1. Boats floating on the bay

 

    1. Exchanging painful notes

 

    1. Feigning pain to make others sorry

 

    1. To change one’s coat daily

 

    1. To take hold of the chain

 

    1. To play at totalling figures

 

    1. To show no change

 

    1. To groan with pain

 

    1. Delaying the explosion

 


SECTION XII

 

The Centring Diphthongs: /iə/, /eə/ & /uə/

 

Target: All Kenyan Speakers

 

Objectives:

 

COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH

 

Worksheet for Unite 12 Centring Diphthongs

 

 

  • Pronunciation

 

 

The main diphthongs practised here are /iə/, /eə/ & /uə/. Again, each diphthong consists of two short vowel sounds, closely knit together. Thus, not

/I – ə:/, etc, but /iə/, /eə/ & /uə/.

 

Together, the two parts of each diphthong have about the same length as one

 

long vowel. Concentrate on making them really “closely knit”.

 

Note that the second part of each diphthong is like /ə/, and not like /ˆ/. That is,

 

at the end of each diphthong, keep your mouth relatively closed.

 


 

  • First Language “equivalents”

 

 

Bearing in mind the “closely knit” nature of the English diphthongs, decide

 

whether your first Language has near equivalents to /iə/, /eə/ & /uə/. if so,

 

give examples. If not, write “no equivalent”.

 

/iə/…………………………………………………….

 

/eə/…………………………………………………….

 

/uə/…………………………………………………….

 

 

  • Spellings

 

 

Here are some typical spellings of /iə/, /eə/ and /uə. Write them out in three

 

columns under the appropriate headings below.

 

Brig adier, engineer, severe, ear , care, chair, poor, t our, pure, curious.
/iə/ /eə/ /uə/
then the /j/ is absent. Eg: “rural” /ruərl/ “plural” /pluərl/.

 

Here are some
exa mples if yo

less common spellings. Do the same with them, adding extra u like.

Idea, real, theatre, weired, museum, there, ere, their, heir, scarce, aerodrome, bear, pear, wear, swear.

/iə/ /eə/ /uə

 


COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH

 

Pronunciation Drill: Unit 11

 

ord s /iə/
1 Here / here 7 Tear / tier
2 Beer / bier 8 Real
3 Dear / dear 9 Jeer
4 Qieer 10 Seer / sear

The W

 

5 Sheer / shear 11 Appear

 

6 Fear 12 Near
The Words /eə/
1 Fair 7 Stair /
2 There / their 8 Mare

stare

 

3 Air / heir 9 Dare
4 Affair 10 Care
5 Chair 11 Share
6 Par / pear 12 Rare

 

The Words / נə/ sometimes used as a variant of /נ:/ as in more, lore, door

 

1 Pour 4 Shore
2 Four 4 Core
3 Tore 6 Chore

 


The Words /uə/

 

1 Sure 7 Valuable
2 Poor 8 Boor
3 Tour 9 Gourd
4 Truant 10 Moor
5 Assure 11 Fluent
6 Contour 12 Influence

 

A Special Note: /ai +ə / and /au +ə /

 

Examples of /ai +ə / Examples of /au +ə /

 

1 Fire 1 Our / hour
2 Tyre / tire 2 Coward
3 Shine 3 Shower
4 Liar 4 Flower

 

The Phrases


  1. To appear queer

 

  1. To be really careful

 

  1. A daring affair

 

  1. A fearful pair of eyes

 

  1. Near the stairway

 

  1. Sheer daring

 

  1. Travelling far and near

 

  1. Running here and there

 

  1. To take a fair share of

 

  1. My dear air
  2. Clear skies and fair weather

 

  1. To jeer at others

 

  1. A mere seer

 

  1. Cold beer at a bar

 

  1. To appear sure of fair weather

 

  1. To care little for tourism

 

  1. A fluent arm-chair critic

 

  1. A guard on a chair

 

  1. To dare to play truant

 

  1. Tourists holding chairs.

 


SECTION XIII

 

General Diphthong Practice

 

Objectives

 

COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH

 

Work Sheet for Unit Twelve

 

 

  • Pronunciation

 

 

The main point to remember is that each diphthong consists of two short elements

 

closely knit. Together the two elements have about the same length as one long vowel. In doing this revision exercise concentrate on the total length of each diphthong especially before voiceless consonants.

 

 

  • First Language “equivalents”

 

 

On the diagram above circle the diphthongs for which you think there is no

 

equivalent in your First Languages. Concentrate on practising these making them

 

“closely knit” but remembering that each complete diphthong should have the length associated with the English long vowels.

 


 

 

  • Spellings

 

 

Revive the typical and less typical spellings for each of the diphthongs practised in

 

Units 9, 10 and 11. Then take the two self-tests below:

 

Test A. Write down the phonemic symbol for the diphthong in the underlined

 

part of each of these words:

 

(a) I / / (j) neighbour / / (s) brown / /
(b) a / / (k) rare / / (t) prey / /
(c) go / / (l) play / / (u) purity / /
(d) hide / / (m) flow / / (v) mauve / /
(e) dough / / (n) fair / / (w) tour / /
(f) mere / / (o) Idea / / (x) buoy / /
(g) loin / / (p) sky / /
(h) brigadier / / (q) plural / /
(i) Bough / / (r) race / /

 

Test B. Check your answers and revise before doing test B. (Answers

 

overleaf).

 

  1. Steak / / (j) pier / /  (s) soya / / (plus / /)

 

  1. no / / (k) steer / /  (t) tower / / (plus / /)

 

  1. lie / / (l) rare / /  (u) fir / / (plus / /)

 

(d) soul / / (m) wait / / (v) cure / j /
(e) museum / / (n) hear / / (w) moor / /
(f) drought / / (o) eye / / (x) rural / /
(g) heir / / (p) toe / /

 


  1. freight / / (q) loud / /

 

  1. fright / / (r) beer / /

 

The unit is devoted to the English diphthongs /ai/ as in buy, /au/ as in sow, /əi/ as in boy,/oi/ as in play, /uə/ as in boat, /ui/ as in ruin, /iə/ as in beer, /εə/ as in care,

/əə/ as in door, and /uə/ as in poor

 

Here are twenty-four sentences, each of which features a number of these diphthongs. Listen carefully to me while I say them, then repeat them after me. I

shall give you the model again before I go on to say the next sentence.

 

    1. They coiled the rope round eight times.

 

    1. I found the crowd quite difficult to control

 

    1. Thee boys don’t care about safety signs.

 

    1. a total of nine boats took part in the race.

 

    1. We painted the old bicycle a bright golden-red.

 

    1. His voice sounded hollow, and his eyes were moist with tears.

 

    1. They dined on smoked hen and drunk a lot of white wine.

 

    1. Scowling, he dug up the soil with a spade while the rain came down in torrents.
    2. It was a cold night, and the pain in his leg was so great that he gave up all hope of getting home.
    3. Time and tide wait for no man.

 

    1. With the death rate rising higher every day, how can any sane mother go around with a smile on her face?
    2. It requires real care to move boxes of dynamite from a house on fire.

 


    1. He shouted loudly to us to avoid the sheer edge of the cliff.

 

    1. She would not share here chair with either of the boys.

 

    1. Near the dhow were several boats, but we couldn’t see a soul around.

 

    1. He took his change quite cheerfully even though he had to wait five hours in the rain for it.
    2. The explosion sounded frightfully loud in the enclosed space.

 

    1. Stale beer was all they could offer the Boy Scout for his musingly daring exploits.
    2. Joy flooded through his heart at the mere sight of the lady.

 

    1. I bound the pencils together with a fine piece of old twine.

 

    1. The ball bounded off the goal post and sailed back towards the centre line.

 

    1. Quaking with fear, the poor little boy sank down on the floor.

 

    1. There was not a shade of doubt on his face as he mounted the stairs onto

 

the high platform.

 

    1. He was sure the crowd would not jeer at him this time.

 


SECTION XIV

 

Consonant Clusters I & II

 

Target: Bantu languages speakers, Italians and Spanish speakers

 

Objectives

 

COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH

 

Worksheet for units 13 and 14 Problem Consonant Clusters

 

 

  • Pronunciation

 

 

A “consonant cluster” is a sequence of two or more consonants pronounced one after the other.

Make the transition from one consonant to the next as smooth and “closely” knit” as possible, avoiding the insertion of a short vowel scund.

Pronouncing a cluster takes more time than pronouncing a single consonant. Nevertheless, don’t allow the cluster to take away from the time allocated to a preceding long vowel or diphthong. This is, long vowels and diphthongs must be fully long, even before clusters.

 


 

  • First Language “equivalents

 

 

Does your First Language have consonant clusters? If so, give a few examples below. If not, write “no clusters”.

 

Give your first language examples here:

 

    1. Clusters within words (as in English “sixths”, “history”)

 

“………………………………………………………………” “………………………………………………………………”

“………………………………………………………………”

 

“………………………………………………………………”

 

“………………………………………………………………”

 

    1. Clusters formed across word-boundaries (as in English “cut down”):

 

“………………………………………………………………”

 

“………………………………………………………………”

 

“………………………………………………………………” “………………………………………………………………”

“………………………………………………………………” “………………………………………………………………”

 

  • Spellings

 

 

For these two units, no special comments on spellings are required.

 


COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH

 

Pronunciation Drill: Script for UNIT 13 Problem Consonant Clusters I

 

In this unit we shall deal with one of the problems which some speakers of English as a second language have in connection with the pronunciation of consonant clusters: that is, the tendency to introduce a transitional vowel sound, usually the /i/ or the /u/ sound, between two consonants, as a result of inability to catenae such consonant clusters or sequences easily. For example, saying

X/ha: diha: tid/ instead of /ha:dha:tid/ for “hard-hearted”

 

Or

 

X/puratul/ instead of /pratl/ for “prattle”

 

Here are fifteen more words that may present this problem. Please listen carefully to me while I pronounce these words, and then repeat them after me as carefully as possible. I shall give you the model again for comparison before I go to the next word. Let us begin.

The words


  1. treble

 

  1. pestle

 

  1. possible

 

  1. protector

 

  1. blade

 

  1. calculator

 

  1. dictation
  2. aptitude

 

  1. train

 

  1. entrance

 

  1. restrain

 

  1. chapter

 

  1. blame

 

  1. obstructionist


Good.

 

Now here are twelve phrases containing consonant clusters that may preset the same difficulty. Listen carefully to me while I say them, and then repeat them after me as correctly as possible. I shall go through the phrases in the usual manner. Here we go.

 


Phrases:

 

  1. A start calculated to upset people

 

  1. Betting without question on the treble chance

 

  1. A wad of paper stuck firmly in the cogs of the calculator

 

  1. Writing an aptitude test at dictation speed

 

  1. The first chapter of a book on flowers

 

  1. Cartfuls of mud to be unloaded onto the train

 

  1. To blame the faculty for obstructing possible development

 

  1. Protector to the king and queen

 

  1. Entrances and corridors and staircases and basements

 

  1. September rains and bright starlit nights

 

  1. Townspeople and villagers traveling abroad without passports

 

  1. To present problems without stopping to listen to the answers to them.

 

Good.

 


COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH

 

Pronunciation drill: Unit 14 Problem Consonant Cluster II

 

In  this  unit we  shall deal  with more consonant  clusters, which tend to  present pronunciation difficulties. We have already seen in unit 13 how, confronted with certain consonant clusters which are unusual in their mother tongue, some speakers of English as a second language find difficulty in pronouncing them and try to get over their difficulty by inserting a transitional vowel sound 9usually /i/ or /u/) between the consonant sounds concerned. Other  speakers with a similar  problem tend to adopt a different  solution,

sounds i n the cluste r.
As you may have noticed in unit 13, such difficult cluste rs may occur n ot only in the
middle o f single w ords, b t also i n longer utterances like phrases and sen tences, where

which is nevertheless equally unsatisfactory: that of omitting some of the consonant

 

u

 

the sounds that makes up the cluster may constitute the final and initial sounds of successive words within the utterance.

The following phrases should illustrate the points made in this Unit and give you some practice. As usual I shall say each phrase while you listen to me carefully; after that you will say the phrase, I shall give you the model again for comparison, and then go to the next phrase. Let us begin.

The Phrase

 

  1. Cocks flying into the next

 

  1. Statistics written down for careful study

 

  1. To stand fast by to take a phonetic transcription

 

  1. A white stork standing in the grass

 

  1. A Pepsi cola for each thirsty player

 

  1. To keeper straight

 

  1. The tired students

 


  1. An excuse for pestering little children

 

  1. A lot of question

 

  1. An old squirrel suffering little children

 

  1. a lot of questions

 

  1. Tipsters and tricksters having a good time with songsters

 

Good.

 

The problem clusters dealt with in this unit may be represented in phonetic transcription as follows:

/ksfl/ /kstr/ /st/ /ksr/ /nd/ /nf/ /lst/ /ndf/ /skr/ /tst/ /kst/
/ps/ /t∫θ/ /kspl/ /pstr/ /dstj/ /nts/ /ksk/ /tlt/ /tlt/ /ldr/ /vkw/
/st/ /ldskw/ /ls/ /mdr/ /pst/ /zh/ /mw/ /δs/

 


SECTION XV

 

Incomplete Plosives

 

Target: All Kenyan Speakers

 

Objectives:

 

COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH

 

Pronunciation Drill: unit 15 Incomplete Plosive

 

In this Unit we shall deal with the phenomenon in English pronunciation sometimes described as the incomplete plosive consonant.

We have seen from unit 14 how tempting it is for the speaker of English as a second language to omit some members of certain consonant clusters when he finds these clusters difficult to pronounce. The point we made then were that as a result of such omission intelligibility may suffer.

It is important at this point, however, to introduce a note of caution about clusters made up of plosive.

When the plosive consonant /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/ and /g/ occur in various combination as two-member clusters, the common practice in English is that the first member is not fully articulated. The speech organs concerned merely behave as if they were putting themselves in a state of readiness to pronounce the first plosive consonant, but before the

 


actual plosion takes place the organ go on to pronounce the next plosive sound. Thus we


say

 

/k(p) bd/, not*/kpdd/ cupboard


and

 

/bi (g) ka:/, not*/bigk:/ big car

Similarly, when three of these plosive consonants occur in a cluster, the last member is the one, which is fully articulated. The first member is only partially articulated in the manner already described; but the middle member tends to be omitted compeleye, all that remains of it being a kind of pause of duration. Thus we say

/w (p) – bitali/, not*/wpt bitli/ wept bitterly

 

/l (k) – d:/ not*/lkt d:/ locked door

 

In unit 13 we saw how speakers of English as second language try to overcome their difficulty in pronouncing certain consonant clusters by introducing transitional vowels like /i/ and /u/ between the members of such clusters. Persons who have this difficulty should be even more careful about clusters made up of plosive consonants. Unless they observe the points made here about the incomplete plosive, they will be even more prone to introduce transitional vowels like /i/ and /u/ into their plosive consant clusters. (or, to pt it another way, the more the effort such person put into articulating fully all the members of a plosive between the members of the cluster) It is important to bear this fact in mind. Now here are examples of phrases and sentences containing incomplete plosives. I shall say each of them while you listen. As usual you will repeat it after me, and shall give you the model again before I go the next example.

Here we go:

 

    1. a black boy in red tights

 

    1. a good person, without doubt

 

    1. a big car parked in a dark passage

 


    1. I stopped to watch the big game

 

    1. we walked past the kiosk today

 

    1. she wept bitterly.

 

(k)= incomplete plosive; – = pause; * = incorrect

 


SECTION XVI

 

Consonants /l/ and /r/

 

Target: Kikuyu, Embu and Meru, Japanese and Chinese M.T. Speakers

 

Objective:

 

COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH

 

Worksheet for Unit 16 The Consonants /l/ and /r/

 

 

  • Pronunciation

 

 

For/l/, press the tip of the tongue firmly against the alveolar ridge, and “let it

 

linger there for a long, long time.” Don’t allow the tip of the tongue to flap or

 

jiggle about simply “place it on the alveolar ridge and leave it there.”

 

For /r/, don’t press hard. Allow the tip of the tongue to “flap” or “roll” against

 

the alveolar ridge.

 


 

 

  • First language “equivalents

 

 

If so, give examples. If not, write “no equivalent”.

 

/l/ “…………………………………………………………”

 

/r/ “………………………………………………………….”

 

In some Kenyan languages, although only “r” occurs in the standard spelling

 

system, some words so spelt can be pronounced with /l/ in careless or fast speech (also perhaps in the pronunciation of younger speakers). If this is true

of your own First language, be especially careful. You may find that you

 

transfer the same habit to English, substituting /l/ for /r/ when you are

 

speaking fast or casually. In other languages, the reverse may be the case, with

 

/r/ substituting for /l/ in faster, more casual speech.

 


Also, in some languages what is written as an “r” may be pronounced more

 

like an /r/ in some environments, more like an /l/ in others 9eg, after different sorts of vowel or at the beginning versus the middle of a word).

Think carefully about you own First language, especially if it belongs to Bantu group, to determine whether it is subject to any complexities of the types

described above. If so, write a note to this effect in the soace provided below.

 

…………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………

 

 

  • Spellings:

 

 

    1. The normal spellings of /l/ are “l” and “ll”, as in “lip” and “smelly”. In a few words, a written “l” is not pronounced (i.e., it is “silent”) this happens especially before /f/, /k/ and /m/, as in the following examples:

calf, half, talk, walk, yolk, folk, palm, almond, Holmes The “l” is also silent in the following:

could, should, would

 

But in all other words in which the “l” is not silent (as in cold, bold, yield, field etc), it should, as always, be pronounced fully and strongly, with firm pressure of the tip of the tongue on the alveolar ridge.

 


    1. The normal spellings of /r/ are “r” and “rr”, as in “fun” and “hurry”.

 

However, the letter “r” in the ordinary spelling of an English word will be pronounced only when a vowel sound follows. Thus the “r” (or “rr” )is pronounced in words such as the following:

“run”, “curry”, “fury”, “furious”, “fearing”

 

but the “r” is not pronounced in words such as the following:

 

“card”, “feared”, “party”, “ordinary”, “ark”.

 

At the end of a word, the same rule holds good. Whether the final “r” is pronounced or not depends on what sound follows it at the beginning of the next word (if any). The “r” is pronounced if this next sound is vowel, as in the following:

“my car is parked here”, “four animals”

 

but the “r” is not pronounced if the next sound is a consonant or if there is no follwing

 

word at all, as in the following example:

 

“for one”, “for once”, “four universities”, “your units”.

 

A word-final “r” pronounced before a vowel In the next word in known as a linking

 

“r”

 


ACTIVITY

 

COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH

 

Pronunciation Drill: Unit 16 The Consonants /l/ and /r/

 

The words /l/

 

1. leave 9. plough 17. fault
2. lake 10. flower 18. wolf
3. London 11. cleanliness 19. muddle
4. loading 12. blinkers 20. giggle
5. millions 13. pillows 21. little
6. poultice 14. early 22. nibbling
7. legislation 15. fill
8. floor 16. coal

 


The word /r/

 

1. rat 9. screw 17. throat
2. wreck 10. brush 18. sorry
3. trams 11. drum 19. parity
4. street 12. praying 20. endearing
5. neutral 13. grass 21. far and near
6. outrage 14. april 22. air and wate
7. print 15. bedroom
8. cream 16. frosty

 

The Minimal pairs

 

  1. long – wrong 5. right – light

 

  1. rice – lice 6. collect – correct

 

  1. glass – grass 7. arrive – alive

 

  1. leader – reader 8. play – pray

 

The Phrases


  1. running a long race

 

  1. plans for a primary school

 

  1. idling in neutral gear

 

  1. the skeletons of parrots

 

  1. practice on the trampolines

 

  1. crude clowning
  2. some loose screws

 

  1. a pile of rubbish

 

  1. a wolf in the field

 

  1. a little apple

 

  1. a fickle lover

 

  1. a labeled bottle

 


The sentences

 

    1. I’m trying to thread the needle

 

    1. I saw the President last Friday when he drove through our village.

 

    1. I plan to plant some lavender and lilac bushes

 

    1. such trees will blossom properly only in ideal conditions

 

    1. giraffes have long necks so they can reach leaves from lofty branches

 

    1. an apple a day keeps the doctor away

 

    1. I’m glad/not a learner drive. These roads are enough to frighten the most experienced veteran
    2. we shall have a preliminary look at their promotion plans

 

    1. a little intelligence would have solved the problem.

 

    1. commercial travelers nearly always dress correctly

 

  1. the mill was full of little pe
  1. if that gives any trouble, I’l
ople drinking bottles of apple juice.
l kill him with my cudgel

 


SECTION XVII

 

Prenasalization voiced Stops /b/, /d/, /d/ and /g/

 

Target: Kikuyu, Embu, Meru and Kamba M.T. Speakers

 

Objectives:


COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH

 

Work-sheet for Unit 17

 

Voiced stops (/b/, /d/, /d/g/)

Contrasted with sequences of nasal Plus stop (/mb/, /nd/, /nd/, /ηg/).

 

 

  • Pronunciation

 

 

Where a nasal is presented in the ordinary English speling before a stop

 

consonant, pronounce it fully and strongly, lingering on it slightly to give

 

it full value.

 

e.g. rumble, hand, fringe, finger

 

But where no is represented in the ordinary spelling, do not allow any air at all to escape through the nose. There must not be the slightest hint of nasality.

e.g. rubble, had, fridge, figure.

 


 

  • First language “equivalents”

 

 

In a number of Kenyan languages, especially between the central and Eastern Kenyan Bantu group, voiced stops are always preceded by a very brief nasal element (through at the beginning of a word this element may

be so brief as to be hardly audible). For instance, a /d/ is always preceded by a very brief alveolar nasal sound. In the ordinary spelling of these languages, the nasal sound and the stop are represented by separate letter

(e.g. by “n” and “d”). but in many such languages this mis-represents the real situation. The brief nasal sound and the stop together function as a single phoneme, often represented in phonemic transcription as /nd/ (similarly, /mb/, /nd/, etc). These units are known as “pre-nasalised stops”.

If your First Language is of this type, you may find two sorts of problem in

 

pronouncing English words of the sorts practiced here.

 

First, there may be difficulty in pronouncing a really full, strong nasal

 

before a voiced stop since in the first language only a very brief nasal

 

would occur in this position)

 

Second, there may be difficulty in pronouncing a voiced stop without any

 

preceding nasal since the First Language a very brief nasal element is always present)

These are two problems that are treated in the present section.

 


ACTIVITY

 

/mb/ /b/


/nd/

 

/nd/

 

/ηg/

/d/

 

/d /

 

/g/

If so, give examples below. If not, write “no clear contrast”

 

  1. a) /mb/ “……………………………………………………”

 

/b/ “……………………………………………………” b) /nd/ “……………………………………………………”

/d/ “……………………………………………………” c) /nd/ “……………………………………………………”

/d/ “……………………………………………………”

 

  1. d) /ηg/ “……………………………………………………”

 

/g/ “……………………………………………………”

 

 

  • Spellings

 

 

No special points on spelling are required for this unit.

 


COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH

 

Pronunciation Drill: Unit 17 Voiced stops contrasted with

 

sequences of nasal plus stop.

 

The Words nasal Plus voiced stop

 

1. hand 9. angel 17. longitude
2. bind 10. engines 18. strangulatio
3. cringe 11. anger n
4. strange 12. stronger 19. gangrene
5. slumber 13. membrane 20. ground crew
6. remember 14. syndrome 21. strangeness
7. fender 15. landrover 22. kindliness
8. abandon 16. dangerous

 

The Words voiced stop only

 

1. tube 9. rebellious 17. a baby
2. grab 10. labour 18. the best
3. bide 11. daddy 19. a dagger
4. had 12. mediaeval 20. the darkness
5. ledge 13. agitate 21. a jail
6. age 14. aged 22. the game
7. vague 15. again
8. rogue 16. degradation

 


The Phrases:

 

    1. a bad hand 7. around andabout


    1. a range of ages

 

    1. a gold ingot

 

    1. a branching emblem

 

    1. humble origins

 

    1. danger of damage
  1. nimble figures

 

  1. a brand-new landrover

 

  1. a girl at the gate

 

  1. a broken window

 

  1. judge and jury


The Sentences

 

  1. They grumbled about the rubble the builder had left in the basement
  2. The girl agreed to lend him a hand
  3. A crowd of able-bodied beggars wandered onto the ground
  4. He said that his friend had betrayed his confidence
  5. They led me to a game lodge deep in the jungle
  6. We heard the crowds demanding the death of the offender
  7. An angel appeared to the wanderers in the desert
  8. The guilty rogue was condemned to death for murder
  9. Trembling, the boy admitted that he and his friend had robbed the bank
  10. The November wind blew hard around his shoulders
  11. Have you tried the new brand of margarine?
  12. A dangerous dog that may have had rabies bit them.


SECTION XVIII

Consonants // and /t/ as in ship and chip

 

Target: Certain Kikuyu dialect speakers and Dholuo Speakers

 

Objectives:


COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH

 

Work-sheet for Unit 18

 

The consonants // and /t/

 

  • Pronunciation

 

 

// Is a fricative sound. The air escaped continuously through a narrow gap left

 

between the blade/front of the tongue and the alveolar ridge/hard palate. Try saying / /.

You should be able to make a long, continuous sound of this type without the tip of the tongue catching on the alveolar ridge and causing an interruption.

/t/ is an affricate sound (a sort of consonantal diphthong consisting of a stop immediately followed by a fricative element. Put the tip of the tongue on the alveolar, say //. Because of the /t/ – like element, the sound starts abruptly. Try saying /t – t – t – t – t – t – t – t/, each time starting with a really hard

stop just like a /t/.

 


 

  • First Language “equivalents”

 

 

If so, give an example. If not, write “no equivalent”.

 

//: “…………………………………………………………….”

 

/ t/: “…………………………………………………………….”

 

You may find that in your First Language both sounds occur but are restricted

 

to certain positions within the word (e.g. only at the beginning, or only in the

 

middle). If so, write a note to this effect.

 

Then concentrate n practicing the sounds in those positions where they do not

 

occur in the First language.

 

 

  • Spellings

 

Here are some typical spellings of // and /t/. Write them out under the appropriate headings below.

 

Ship, mission, pension, conscience, caution, facial, ocean, chip, watch.

 

// /t/
……………… ……………….. ……………….. ………………..
……………… ……………….. ……………….. ………………..
……………… ……………….. ……………….. ………………..
……………… ……………….. ……………….. ………………..

 

Here are some less common spellings. Do the same with them, adding extra examples if you like.

Champagne, chef, chivalry, charade, chauffeur, chalet, moustache,

 

(All from French), sugar, sure, censure……….

 


Question, righteous, nature……………

 

// /t/
……………… ……………….. ……………….. ………………..
……………… ……………….. ……………….. ………………..
……………… ……………….. ……………….. ………………..
……………… ……………….. ……………….. ………………..
……………… ……………….. ……………….. ………………..


Pronunciation Drill: Unit 18 The words //

the consonants // and /t/

    1. shoe
  1. nation
  2. emulsion


  1. shine 10. impression 17. flesh


  1. shape
  1. cushion
  1. dish



    1. ship 12. pressure

19.

crash



    1. champagne

 

    1. Chevrolet
  1. machine

 

  1. compunctio
  1. moustache

 

  1. welsh



    1. shrink n

 

    1. shred 15. conviction

 

the words /t/

  1. finish


1. chew 8. chamber 15. pictures
2. chime 9. riches 16. fixtures
3. chair 10. kitchen 17. belching
4. child 11. etchings 18. poach
5. charity 12. dentures 19. beach
6. cheque 13. benches 20. fetch
7. chimney 14. branching 21. gulch

 


  1. bench

 

The Minimal Pairs

 

  1. shin – chin 5. shan’t – chant


  1. chew – shoe

 

  1. witches – wishes

 

  1. was – watch
  1. chip – ship

 

  1. dish – ditch

 

  1. chopping – shopping


The Phrases:

  1. A cheeky shopkeeper
  2. A pressure chamber of fashion
  3. A chance to make an impression
  4. The shape of the future
  5. To wash the kitchen
  6. To fetch the dishes
  7. A champion fisherman
  8. A chalice of champagne
  9. A bleached shirt
  10. White shoes
  11. Why choose.

The Sentences

  1. We didn’t get a chance to catch any fish
  2. I showed them the shadow of my Chinese chambermaid.
  3. He shot the cashier, reached for the change, and dashed out of the shop
  4. The English chess-player was check-mated in the national challenge match
  5. Shouting cheerfully, they chased out the children around the beach
  6. He rationed the cheese and shared out the champagne cautiously
  7. they shared a passion for chiming clocks and old-fashioned watches.
  8. The chimney was choked with wood-shavings and chewing-up newspapers
  9. how much did she charge for the shorts you purchased from her?
  10. The Russians allowed the ship to shelter in the navigation channel shown on the chart
  11. These flash-lamps and torches are manufactured in Persia
  12. His checkered shirt and cheap shoes made him an object /d∍/ of derision

 

//.

SECTION XIX

 

Consonants /h/ and /Φ/

 

Target: Meru and Cockney Speakers

 

Objectives:

 

COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH

 

Pronunciation Drill: Script for Unit 19 The Consonants /h/

 

The words with /h/


  1. Henry’
  2. hotel
  3. hoping
  4. hiccup
  5. human
  6. hospital
  7. historian
  8. humorous
  9. inhibited
  10. inhibition
  11. inherit
  12. rehabilitation
  13. inheritance
  14. rehearsal
  15. vehicular
  16. hypocrite
  17. heroic
  18. hedgehog
  19. head-hunters
  20. haphazard
  21. who
  22. whole
  23. whore
  24. whooping
  25. whooping-cough

The words without /h/

 

1. aunt 9. heir 17. exhaust
2. animal 10. heiress 18. exhibition
3. evidence 11. honour 19. exhortation
4. orderly 12. honesty 20. exhilarating
5. even 13. dishonest 21. exhaustive
6. our 14. honourable 22. annihilate
7. air 15. exhort 23. vehement
8. hour 16. exhibit 24. vehicle

 

The Minimal Pairs

 

Before repeating the minimal pairs, give yourself a listing test. Do not proceed until you are able to pass this test with full marks.

1. bark ark 6. otter hotter
2. eat heat 7. holder older
3. ailing hailing 8. eight hate
4. hue you 9. harmful armful
5. handy Andy 10. highball eyeball

 

The Phrases:

 

    1. Angels in heaven

 

    1. Heretics in hell

 

    1. A hard-hearted heiress

 

    1. Sub-human anthropoids
    2. A heavy vehicle
    3. A vehement exhortation
    4. Historical interludes
    5. Annihilating the hostile elements
    6. A hazardous adventure in Hungary
    7. A huge hand-made handkerchief
    8. Dishonest and hypocritical
    9. Herding the hungry antelopes.

 

The Sentence

  1. Whose house is that on the top of the hill?
  2. He attended an interesting exhibition of handicrafts
  3. Who would have thought that Whooping cough could be so harmful?
  4. The hedgehog awoke from its hibernation feeling horribly hungry
  5. They annihilated the enemy with hand-grenades and hydrogen bombs
  6. The exhausted hay-makers harnessed their horses and rode home to the farm
  7. She inherited a huge fortune from her uncle in Havana
  8. His honesty allowed him to admit no exceptions
  9. He hoped to find an uninhabited island in the huge Atlantic Ocean.
  10. They were eating hunks of ham and hooting with hysterical laughter
  11. We paid homage to the honoured handful of heroes who gave us our independence
  12. Everyone in my home area is hoping for a better harvest.

 

SECTION XX

Consonants /δ/ and /θ/

Target: All Kenyans, Germans, Italians, Spanish except Dholuo Speakers

Pronunciation Drill: Script for Init 20 The Consonants /δ/ and /θ/ The Word /δ/

1. the 9. though 17. breathed
2. this 10. father 18. seethed
3. those 11. brother 19. bathe
4. then 12. wither 20. wreathe
5. they 13. either 21. smooth
6. them 14. loathing 22. booth
7. thus 15. clothing 23. with
8. therefore 16. clothes 24. rhythm
25.

 


The Word /θ/

 

1. think 9. ether 17. aesthetic
2. thing 10. author 18. synthesis
3. thoughtful 11. panther 19. bath
4. thumb 12. anthem 20. wreath
5. three 13. ethical 21. breath
6. threat 14. pathetic 22. cloths
7. thicken 15. gothic 23. fourths
8. thesis 16. mythical 24. sixth

 

The minimal Pairs

Before repeating the minimal pairs, give yourself a listening test. Do not proceed until you are able to pass this test with full marks.

  1. Wreathe wreath
  2. Loathloathe
  3. Ether-either
  4. Wreath wreathe
  5. Teethe teeth
  6. Thistle this’ll [this will]

The phrases:

    1. Rather thinner
    2. There’s another
    3. The authors father
    4. To loathe your brother
    5. Without enthusiasm
    6. With a smooth rhythm
    7. The death of the panther
    8. A throng of thieves
    9. Bathing in thick clothes
    10. These withered thumbs
    11. Those thrifty mothers\
    12. Three thousand, three hundred and thirty three

The sentences:

      1. He’s the author of three books on geothermal resources.
      2. The crowd threw stones at the thief and threatened to beat him to death
      3. He thought of their thin bodies and pathetic, hopeless faces.
      4. Although my clothes are threadbare, I won’t bother to change them
      5. He was taller than his father by three sixteenths of an inch
      6. Put the thimble on your thumb and then try to thread the needle
      7. They’re gathering material for a thesis on the aesthetics of the theatre
      8. The thunderous applause of the audience threatened to bring down the roof
      9. He was studying the growth of the synthetic cloth industry
      10. They followed the path down the hill and then into the thicket
      11. Carrying their wreaths, the mourners gathered in the cathedral
      12. He crushed the thermometer between his teeth and refused to accept the therapy.

 

SECTION XXI

Voiced and Voiceless Stops

 

Target: Kalenjin, Ekugusii and certain Luhya dialects and Kikamba

 

Speakers

Pronunciation Drill: Script for Unit 21 Voiced and Unvoiced Stops

 

The Words (1)

pop  paper  petulant

babe  puberty impassioned

practical Baptist pampered

bread bachelor amber 

pledge baby important

blade purely preacher

packet whimpering dimple

beautiful bucket pimples


The Words (2)

1. daub 9. plague 17. intrigue
2. deed 10. dotty 18. industrious
3. dirge 11. toddy 19. interviewed
4. grab 12. Japanese 20. enchanted
5. jade 13. natural 21. painted
6. judge 14. jacket 22. pointed
7. gag 15. gaping 23. blanket
8. deepen 16. planted 24. banker

 

The Minimal Pairs

Before repeating the minimal pairs, give yourself a listening test. Do not proceed until you are able to to pass this test with full marks.

  1. Pig big
  2. Nibble nipple
  3. Din tin
  4. Jane chain
  5. Rope rob
  6. Beseech besiege
  7. Great crate
  8. Bicker bigger
  9. Writer rider
  10. Catching cadging
  11. Anger anchor
  12. Lunch lunge
  13. Simple symbol

The Phrase

A symbol of power Probability of proof Income-tax inspector Gaping void

Boats at anchor

Intrepid trapeze artists Pampered bachelors Japanese painters Approaching puberty Interesting documents

Bubonic plague

An important change The teacher in charge If it is patented

Boiled and potted Coiled and knotted A packet of beads Buckets of blood

The Sentences

  1. He invented a gadget for planting potatoes
  2. The pupils succeeded in all they attempted
  3. She had boils and pimples all over her chin
  4. He brushed it aside with the back of his hand
  5. She intended to prevent the people from panicking
  6. Their chances of success were diminished by the population explosion
  7. He reported his first tentative impressions in the newspapers
  8. They were divided into opposing factions by bickering and intrigue.

 


 

APPENDIX I

 

THE ORGANS OF SPEECH:

 

(Modified from Gimson 1970 and Sonesson 1968)

THE ORGANS OF SPEECH


APPENDIC II

 

R.P.E. COMPARED WITH G ENERAL AMERICA

N PRONUNCIATION

 


ENGLISH PHONEMES COMPARED

 

R.P.E  (BRITISH) GENERAL AMERICAN

DANIEL JONES (1988)

 

a.as in /fa:∂∂/ (father)

TRAGER AND SMITH 1951)

 

same

æ as in /pæk/ (pack) same

as in /mt/ (much)

same

b as in /bout/ (boat) same

d as in /dai/ (day) same

d as in /d∍∧∍/ (judge)

same

δ as in /δ/ (then) same

ei as in /plei/ (play) same

e as in /red/ (red)

e as in /skes/ (scarce)

same

_r

as in /bid/ (bird) r

as in /’bv/ (above) same

f as in /fut/ (foot) same

g as in /giv/ (give) same

h as in /h: t/ (hurt) same

i: as in /si:/ (see) same

i as in /lip/ (lip) same

i as in /pis/ (pierce) ir

j as in /ja: d/ (yard) a:r

k as in /kud/ (could) same

l as in /li: v/ (leave) same

m as in /ma: k/ (mark) n as in /net/ (net)

a:r same

η as in /soη/ (song) same

ou as in /lou/ (low) same

o: as in /so:/ (saw) same

o as in /loη/ (long) same

o as in /mo/ (more) or

 


 

Definition of Key words, Concepts and Acronyms
Accent A type of pronunciation that is identified with a particular region or class.
Acceptable e.g. Lockney or R.P.E. (q.v.)

A pronunciation that is seen as correct by native speakers of a language

Acrolet A variety (dialect) of a language that is given the highest status e.g. Queens

English

Affricate A consonant that is a combination of a stop+fricative e.g. chip, written t
Allophone A variant of a phoneme that is not indicated in phonemic transcription e.g. the
two allophones of /k/ in “skin” and “kin” are [k] and [kh[ – unaspirited and
aspirated
Alveolar Used to describe a consonant made by touching the ridge between the upper
Approximant teeth and gum with the tip of the tongue.

A consonant formed without the articulatory organs quite touching other e.g. [j]

Articulation in “yet”

The movement of the organs of speech that alters the flow of air to make speech

Assimilation sounds

The influence of adjacent sounds on each other that makes them more alike e.g.

[n] in “ink” becomes [η]
Basilect The dialect of a language that has no prestige – opposite of acolect
Bilabial

Centre

A consonant formed with both lips e.g. [p]

The part of the tongue between the tip and the back that is involved in forming

central vowels e.g. // and //
Close Description of a vowel made with the tongue in the highest possible position and
the mouth almost closed e.g. [I:] and [u:]
Cluster A sequence of consonants that occur at the beginning or end of a syllable e.g.
Complementary gray, bust

Said of allophones (qv) indicating that they cannot occur in the same

Distribution phonological environment e.g. [kh] cannot occur after [s] in which case [k]
occurs
Consonant A speech sound formed by total blockage of maximum construction of the

airstreams c.f. vowel.

 


 

Contrastive distribution Descriptive of phonemes that indicate that when the substitute one another in the
same position in a word, they alter the meaning of the word e.g. “lice” and
“rice” c.f. complementary distribution.
Dental Descriptive of a consonant made with the tip of he tongue held against the teeth

e.g. “the”

Dialect A variety of language identified with a certain region or social class in terms of
grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation c.f. accent
Diphthong A vowel that is a combination of two vowels that take the same time as a long

vowel to pronounce e.g. “boy” /oi/

Dissimilation The influence of speech sounds in which they become less alike c.f assimilation
Duration The length of time taken in production of a sound or syllable
Elision Education

First language

Leaving out of a sound in connected speech e.g. boys ‘n girls Training in proper enunciation for public speaking

The language one acquired as a child. Also mother tongue native language

Free variation Sounds are said to be thus if their mutual substitution in a word does not change
Fricative the meaning e.g. “e” in “economics” can be [I] or [e]

Descriptive of a consonant made with articulatory organs so close they produce

friction e.g. [f]
Front Descriptive if vowels made with the highest part of the tongue at the front of the
mouth e.g. /I:/
Glossolalia Speaking tongues when possessed by the Holy Ghost
Glottal Slotta stop Sounds mad in the larynx e.g. [h]

Sounds made by closure of glottis and sudden release e.g. [ ] in some dialectal pronunciation of “bottle”

Grapheme

High

The smallest contrastive unit in the writing (spelling) of a language c.f phoneme

Said of vowel made by raising tongue towards the roof of the mouth

Interdental

Intonation

A sound made with the apex of the tongue between the teeth e.g. “th” in “the”

Variation of pitch in speech to change meaning

Juncture Sound boundary characteristics that distinguish units of grammar e.g. “night
rate” and “nitrate”
Labial

Larynx

Sound used with use of lip(s)

The organ where the vocal chords are located

Lateral A consonant made with air escaping through one or both sides of a closure e.g.
/l/
Liaison The pronunciation of a consonant at end of a word (normally unpronounced)

 


 

Liquid

when the next word begins with a vowel e.g. “the car is here” Term used to determine [l] and [r] sounds

Low Descriptive of a sound made with tongue at the bottom of the mouth

Malapropism

 

Manner

An incorrect word used because of its similarity to another e.g. “may I producive Mr. Kamau” instead of “introduce”

How a sound is produced e.g. fricative

Metathesis Alternation in the normal sequence of sounds e.g. “asks” instead of “ask”

 

Minimal pair

Words that differ in meaning only in the sound at the same position e.g. “tick” and “lick”

Monophthong A vowel that maintains its quality as compared to a diphthong

Morphophonology Study of relationship between morphology ad phonology

Mother-tongue interference (MIT)

The influence of the first language on the learning of a subsequent language e.g. inability to distinguish “l” and “r” since they are not contrasted in kikuyu language

Nasal Descriptive of sounds made with air passing through the nose

 

Native speaker

A person whose language is a first language is mother tongue c.f. second language and foreign language

Open Descriptive of vowels made with mouth wide open

Orthography The spelling system of language

Palatal Phone Descriptive of sounds formed in the area of the hard palate (see appendix I) The smallest audible segment of speech e.g. [e] in “egg”

Phoneme The smallest unit of speech in a particular unit of speech in a particular language that distinguishes meaning. Phonemes are said to be in constructive distribution 9qv) also c.f allophone

Phonetics The study of human speech sounds regarding their production, transmission and reception

Phonetic transcription The transcription of all the distinguishable phones in an utterance c.f phonemic transcription,

Phonology The study of the sounds and sound system of a language c.f phonetics

Place of articulation The point in the vocal tract where a sound is produced e.g. velar, alveolar etc.

Plosive A consonant made with sudden release of a complete closure in the vocal tract also known as “stop”

Prosody The phonological use of pitch, loudness, tempo and rhythm

 

Received pronunciation of English (R.P.E)

The prestige accent of British English

Retroflex Sounds made with the tongue curled backwards towards the hard palate – characteristics of Indian pronunciation of /t/ and /d/

Photic accent The pronunciation of /r/ following a vowel e.g. general American Pronunciation of “car”

Schwa An unstressed vowel made in the center of the mouth e.g. “a” in “access”, transcribed //

Soft-palate The velum (see appendix I0

Stress The amounts of force used in producing a syllable

Stress timed Language in which syllables are weak and strong e.g. English

Suprasegmental A vocal effect extending beyond one phone e.g. intonation

Syllable A vowel or vowel and consonant combination that is used as a vehicle for pitch etc

Syllable timed A language in which syllables come at regular intervals e.g. Kenyan languages and French c.f stress timed

Tempo Speed and speech

Uvular A consonant made by the back of the tongue against the uvula (see appendix I) e.g. [x] as in “loch

Vocalic Concerning a vowel

Vocal trad The oral and nasal cavities taken together vowel

Vowel

Sound made without closure or friction in the vocal tract that also functions as the Centre of a syllable

Weak form The unstressed form of a word in connected speech e.g. “n” for “and” in “john and peter” said quickly. C.f. strong form

 

FURTHER READING

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