5.4 Highlight five solutions of the challenges facing higher education in Africa.
Challenges facing Higher Education in Africa
The enrollment rates in higher education in sub-Saharan Africa are by far the lowest in the world. Enrollments growth rates have been slow and the absolute gap by which it lags behind other regions has increased rapidly. More over the gender disparity has traditionally been wide and remain so. Notwithstanding increased awareness of the potential and necessity of women to be mainstreamed into the development process, their access to higher education has increased marginally since the 1980s. Imbalances in gender representation are even worse within the academic and administrative staff of African universities. Their participation ranges from 4 % to 7 % at universities in Burkina Faso, Chad, Ethiopia, Guinea, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda to 26% in Madagascar and Mozambique. Moreover equity issues are prevalent where higher education is a preserve of the rich while the poor are unable to access due to the exorbitant fees that is required both in private and public universities.
There is an acute shortage of unemployment in most African countries. This can be attributed to weak links between the industry and the universities. This is further compounded by weak curriculum that stresses theory rather than the skills competencies leading to, massive graduates’ unemployment. This is due to the mismatch between educational programmes those tertiary institutions offers and the needs of the labour market and the prevailing trade and investment strategies. For example Mozambique reports few places for student and poor quality of the courses. The high cost of tertiary education, means that many potential candidates cannot attend. As a result less than three percent of the nationals public administration staff has received higher education.
Poverty has affected higher education in various ways. Malawi reports difficulties with inadequate boarding facilities, while Mauritania has problems stemming from overcrowding in Campuses. In South Africa lack of funding is a major problem and state sponsored financial assistance to students has gone on decreasing. Eligible but financially needy students continue to be excluded from South Africa higher education. More than 16000 students failed to access government funds in 2009.The scheme that has assisted more than one million students since 2000 has been allocated approximately R.3.3 billion for the 2010 academic year. The main issue is whether the universities will be able to allocate a larger pool of funding. The figures of the students in South Africa denied access to financial aid had risen by 45 percent from 11,120 in 2008 to 16,172 in 2009.
In Kenya lack of funds has affected the admission of new students. The new proposal by the government of reducing funding to the universitiesis expected to worsen the situation if implemented. There has been an increase in the number of students enrolled in public universities to 143,000 in 2010 from 101,000 in 2009.The government has been unable to bankroll universities to the required levels because of the widening budget deficit that has hit US $2 billion in 2010.The below target in government revenue in a challenging economic environment has made the matter worse. Since Kenyan public universities rely on state funding, failure to keep up with the enrollment growth would undermine the expansion plans.
In Zimbabwe the exorbitant fees charged students has forced many to drop out of higher education. Due to inflation of the local currency, students are forced to pay fees pegged on US dollars, South African Rand and the Botswana Pulas. Many students are struggling to raise foreign currency that was adopted as the legal tenders to replace Zimbabwe dollar when it was rendered unusable by ravaging inflation. The foreign aid that used to support higher education was stopped as a means of sanctioning the Mugabe’s government that was accused of human rights violation.
In some countries prevailing laws/ legislation often hamper efforts to increase higher education enrolments and improve teaching quality. In some countries highly centralized policy making on Higher Education restricts the autonomy of universities and politicise them. Policy centralization makes it difficult for universities to be responsive to changes in knowledge, labour market and economic development. In other countries, lack of centralization and system oversight allow mushrooming of private universities that provide low quality education at high cost. In comparative perspective Tanzania, Cameroon and Madagascar are examples of countries where government supervise many aspects of university operations. In Benin and Tanzania the government appoints senior university managers. The Ministry of education in Madagascar appoints all faculty members, set salaries and determines working conditions, which results in close links between the faculty members and political system. In other countries such as Angola Guinea and Liberia the public institutions are allowed legal autonomy and even encouraged the establishment of private institutions. For example Kenya has laid down steps in the registration of private university to recognition and accredition. In South Africa, all private providers are required to register their institutions and apply for accredition for their programmes with the South Africa Qualification Authority. Zimbabwe has clearly set out the conditions for the establishment of private universities. There are instances where a good number of private institutions are not registered and recognised yet they operate and attract students. For example in Cameroon many private institutions of higher learning operate and are not authorised to do so, as they do not meet the requirements regarding infrastructure, equipments and staffing stipulated by the government. There are many similar cases in other countries. This scenario can be blamed on inadequacies in the legal provision for the establishment of private universities. Furthermore the employment markets recognises training provided and certificates issued by these institutions.
As far as quality is concerned, inadequate mastery of education programmes, the application of rigid teaching practices, lack of teaching materials and insufficient teaching time are some of the factors hindering achievements of objectives of quality education. Among the reasons that could explain the inadequate learning outcomes in the region are the shortages of teachers, resulting in overcrowded classes with pupils teacher ratio that can be as high as 70:1 or even 100:1.Lecture halls are overcrowded, while laboratories and library facilities are insufficient and the living conditions are precarious. There is rapid expansion of enrolment in Higher education institutions and in most cases has led to decline in quality since it was not matched with consumerate increase in funding. In addition some of the private higher education institutions being established are profit oriented with little regard for quality. In a dozen of countries government response has been to establish quality assurance agencies. Due to lack of requisite capacity and financial resources to do the work, they have too often been reduced to agencies for the licensing of higher private institutions. Well over half of the African countries have yet to establish any mechanism for quality assurance. There is poor preparation of students at lower levels, leading to low internal and external inefficiencies at the higher education levels. This further impact on the insufficient development of the country, poverty reduction and lack of improvement of other levels of the education system. The output of academic research in Africa also remained weak. For example in 1995 the region was responsible for just 5,839 published academic papers. The use of ICT continues to be relatively low. Academically the higher education institutions are unable to cope with the new changes that are global and technological. More over the individual scholars are not ready to embrace new ICT skills required in their teaching. This is further compounded by inadequate training and research conditions and low scholarly incentives; there is a strong temptation for many among the brightest students and teaching staff to seek better living conditions in other countries or regions. Approximately 30 % of the African university trained professionals leave the continent for greener pastures. Recent estimates suggest that up to 50,000 Africa trained PhDs are working outside Africa. The problem is especially acute among medical professionals. There is the challenge of rising demand and access and the struggle to raise and maintain quality and relevance. This can be attributed to slow response to change, inadequate financial resources to expand facilities that affect access. HIV/AIDS is manifesting itself in lowering of the quality as a result of the deterioration of educational provision and of education systems, the psychological conditions faced by both teachers and students and declining capacity for planning and management. For example in 2004 over 40% of teachers in Zambia were HIV positive. This is clear illustration of the magnitude of the problem that the education sector has to contend with.Brain drain has affected most of the sub Saharan Africa where most of the skilled labour force immigrates to the developed countries. The percentage of higher education educated migrants in the region increased from 23% in 1990 to 31.4% in 2000.Most of the emigrants are attracted abroad by the quality and status attached to Higher education institutions in those countries. After completing their studies very few return home to apply their new skills.
Higher education has become more competitive especially given the increasing private sector participation, increasing demand for accountability, limited public funding for higher education, and the advent of borderless tertiary education. Competition in the developed world is forcing some institutions to seek new, easy to access markets in developing countries. Some have established their satellite campuses, or are partnering with local institutions in developing countries to offer their degree programs in areas that have ready markets, e.g., business management and information technology. In view of the perceived greater recognition and marketability of foreign degrees, and the certainty of completing the degree within a prescribed period of time without the fear of interruption due to student crises, these ‘name brand degrees’ are becoming increasingly popular, posing a rising challenge for local universities in some countries.