5.1 Outline the relationship that exists between the phonetic and phonological forms.
Phonological and phonetic forms
The relationship between the phonetic and phonological forms
Phonetic forms have much in common with the phonological forms. From a generative
point of view the phonetic form is the output of the input of the phonological forms.
Segments and processes
A distinction is made between segments and processes.
Segments are the unique, single sounds produced during an articulation. The articulation can be a single, co-articulation, or homorganic.
Processes are articulatory and they determine the syllable structure
Phonetic analysis of speech
Phonetic analysis of speech is essential for the following reasons:-
The comprehensive description of speech production.
Such description is in terms of
The three features were presented in AEN 200 and in this Unit they are discussed further in relation to the analyses of human speech sounds.
Phonetic analyses provides the classifications labels that enable the distinction of unique human speech sounds as:-
The transcriptional symbols are associated with the speech production and they classify that production as follows:-
- phonetic (narrow)
- phonological (broad)
Phonology relates the phonetic events of speech to grammatical units operating at the morphological, lexical, syntactic and semantic levels of language. In such analyses, phonology explains the way the phonemes are influenced by varied linguistic phenomena as illustrated here below:
What would influence the phoneme level?
- morphological addition of morphemes
- lexical stress placement in words
- syntactic stress placement in sentences.
- semantic tone/ intonation
Phonological analyses is thus essential for the following reasons:
a) The comprehension of the contrastive function or opposition of speech sounds, for example, ten/ den, tin/ din, tip/ did that have a commutative relationship
b) The classificatory labels, bilateral opposition, multilateral, privative, gradual.
c) Transcriptional symbols that state the phonetic manifestation of phonological elements.
Two /tu:/ [twu:] where the arrow stands for the relation “is pronounced as” or “is manifested phonetically as” or “is realized phonetically as”….