11.3 Describe the different types of evaluation
Types of evaluation
- Formative Evaluation
- Summative Evaluation
a) Formative Evaluation
Evaluation means “to assess” or “find out”. It is a process of determining the worth of a thing for example curriculum. Formative evaluation takes place during the formative years or stage. Its main purpose is to determine the degree of mastery of given learning task and to pin-point the part of learning task which is not yet mastered. It helps the teacher to focus upon the particular learning necessary for movement towards mastery.
Formative evaluation encompasses those activities undertaken to improve an existing programme or curriculum. It provides evidence on the basis of which decisions can be made about how to revise a programme or a curriculum while it is being developed. During developmental phase data is being collected in order to modify the program before it is implemented in all schools. Formative evaluation takes place at a number of specified points during the curriculum development process. If the content does not seem valid that is, if it does not enable learners to achieve a particular objective or goal, then the content is modified by the developers.
b) Summative Evaluation
According to Bloom, “Summative evaluation is a term which indicates the type of evaluation used at the end of a term, course or programme for the purpose of grading, certification, evaluation of progress or evaluation of the effectiveness of a curriculum. It covers the entire course or programme. Its main aim is to seek evidence of the learning effectiveness of what was designed. It is directed toward a much more general assessment of the degree to which the larger outcomes have been attained over the entire course.
Summative evaluation provides the total picture of the quality of the produced curriculum. It is undertaken at the end of a programme. It focuses on the effectiveness of the total curriculum or the total course within the curriculum. It enables the curriculum has worked. It obtains evidence about the summed effects of the components in the curriculum.