THEORIES OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
In this chapter we are going to learn about theories of curriculum development. We shall start by learning about the meaning of a theory and its functions and then look at different types of theories.
5.1 Define the concept of theories in the context of curriculum development
Meaning of a Theory?
It is a system of beliefs which guide or control actions. A set of interrelated concepts, definitions, and statements that presents a systematic view of a phenomena by specifying relations among components with the purposes of explaining phenomena.
Functions of Theories?
- To guide study and aid in making predictions?
- Provides a logically unified framework,
- Provides generality
- Provides an empirical (experimentally observed) basis.
- Theories describe, predict, and explain phenomena, and they guide the practice of those who use them.
- Theory furnishes those working with a particular realm of knowledge with a way of viewing the world and how it works.
- Theory provides a foundation for action. It shapes individual thinking along certain lines.
- We use theories in our daily lives to give direction.
- They aid in making decisions, i.e., family, finance, etc.
- Theories guide thought.
- They provide a basis for reasoned inquiry in practice.
5.2 The explain the various philosophical and theoretical views of Early Childhood Education
Philosophical and Theoretical Views of ECE Curriculum
A closer look at people working with young children, reveal various contrasting viewpoints about how children learn and develop. People’s assumptions about children are crucial in influencing their practice. It is not possible for some of us to fit into some programmes for ECE in Kenya because their philosophy or beliefs are not inline with our beliefs about ECE. Some programme are too academic, too beuricratic or too formal. In recent years (especially in the era of mushroom of preschools in Kenya) “experts” outside the field of ECE have exerted great influence on ECE teachers and taken control of curriculum content and even methods of teaching. For example, a child is required to sit for interview and to succeed and is required to begin academic work from age two. The main reason may be because most ECE teachers are not able to articulate well their ECE skills from training and are untrained. In the same way we experience different beliefs in the field about ECE. Psychologist also differs in their way of looking at the child. There are several theories developed on how children learn and develop and this influence curriculum in ECE. A well thought out theory of education is important for it helps to explain our orientation to teaching and allows us to depend our position with respect to how we manage learning. A theory of educator enables teachers to explain what they are doing and why it provides academic accountability. First, it is necessary to explore different ways of looking at the child until we are clear about the way we view children, we cannot begin to work with them, nor is it easy to work in partnership with other educators careers or parents, because assumptions about the child are crucial in influencing our practice.
5.3 Dissect the three main theories about children
The Three Main Theories about the Child
A. Empiricism (behaviourists)
B. Nativism (maturationists)
C. Interactionism (progressives)
A. The Empiricism Views
Implicitly subscribes to a deficit model of the child. The role of the adult is to identify missing experience, skills and concepts to select appropriate experiences and transmit them to the child. This came to the fore during late 60s with Bereiter and Engelman as proponents. This work was built on the work of the psychologist Watson and skinner. In 1925, Watson wrote:
“Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed and my own special world to bring them up in and I will guarantee to take any one of them at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select doctors, lawyers, artist, merchant-chief and, yes even bargeman and thief-regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities and vocation and race of his ancestors”.
This demonstrates how children are seen as something to be molded into shape and given experiences which are appropriate and necessary for them to take their place in society. Depending on whether we support the view of the child as a passive recipient or as an active explorer of experiences the adults’ role in working with that child will completely change. The child is an empty vessel to be filled or a lump of clay that can be molded into shape. Habit formation is important learning, teaching is broken down into simple steps from a complex sequence. Learning is seen as a hierarchy from simple to complex. Knowledge can be transmitted from one person to another. There is emphasizing on the influencing of experience and socio-cultural aspects. The adult teaches the child learning and dominating it. Development of the child’s moral values, emotions is seen as under the control of the environment via reinforcement. Based on these perspectives, educational technology & behaviour modification techniques have been developed as teaching strategies. Children only learn by direct instruction. The teacher must teach the child. Learning is by stimulus response and reinforcement.
The child is pre-programmed for development. This is determined by genetically pre-programmed maturational mechanism. The socio- cultural aspects influence development. For examples the language a child speaks. If a child hears Kiswahili then the child learns to speak Swahili but the mechanism for learning language are already there: Adults observe children to monitor progress and emphasize milestone of normal development and check for readiness such as in learning to read. The child is seen as leading his/her own learning with the adult as a facilitator. The proponents here are Gesell, Erickson and Chomsky.
It integrates aspects of empiricism and nativism. This approach recognizes that there are biologically programmed ideas to development, although it places much emphasis on the socio-cultural context in which the child grows up. i.e the people, the material world and culture.
The context in which the child grows varies greatly according to the culture and the physical environment in different places, in one country or globe. People are important in this approach, both children even adults. Sometimes the adults lead the child’s learning and sometimes the child i.e. there is notion of reciprocity or give and take. It is like a conversation where different people can start a conversation but the different speakers need to listen to each other. Mental development is seen as the product of the interaction of the organization (child) and the environment. It was first elaborated by Plato, then Dewey, and most recently by Piaget and Vygotsky. In this view the child is viewed as a scientist, an explorer, an enquirer, critically instrumental in constructing and organizing the world and his own development.
5.4 Show the relevance of the Jerome Bruner Theory of constructivism and discovery learning in today’s teaching environment
Jerome Bruner Theory of Constructivism & Discovery Learning
Bruner was one of the founding fathers of constructivist theory. Constructivism is a broad conceptual framework with numerous perspectives, and Bruner’s is only one. Bruner’s theoretical framework is based on the theme that learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon existing knowledge. Learning is an active process. Facets of the process include selection and transformation of information, decision-making, generating hypotheses, and making meaning from information and experiences. Bruner’s theories emphasize the significance of categorization in learning. “To perceive is to categorize, to conceptualize is to categorize, to learn is to form categories, to make decisions is to categorize.” Interpreting information and experiences by similarities and differences is a key concept.
Bruner was influenced by Piaget’s ideas about cognitive development in children. During the 1940’s his early work focused on the impact of needs, motivations, & expectations (“mental sets”) and their influence on perception. He also looked at the role of strategies in the process of human categorization, and development of human cognition. He presented the point of view that children are active problem-solvers and capable of exploring “difficult subjects”. This was widely divergent from the dominant views in education at the time, but found an audience.
Four Key Themes Emerged in Bruner’s Early Work
Bruner emphasized the role of structure in learning and how it may be made central in teaching. Structure refers to relationships among factual elements and techniques.
He introduced the ideas of “readiness for learning” and spiral curriculum. Bruner believed that any subject could be taught at any stage of development in a way that fit the child’s cognitive abilities. Spiral curriculum refers to the idea of revisiting basic ideas over and over, building upon them and elaborating to the level of full understanding and mastery. It proposes that when structuring a course, it should be organised in a simple-to-complex, general-to-detailed, abstract-to-concrete manner. Another principle is that one should follow learning prerequisite sequence; it is applied to individual chapters within a course. In order for a student to develop from simple to more complex chapters, certain prerequisite knowledge and skills must first be mastered. This prerequisite sequencing provides linkages between each chapter as student spirals upwards in a course of a study. As new knowledge and skills are introduced in subsequent chapters, they reinforce what is already learnt and become related to previously learned information. What the student gradually achieves is a rich breadth and depth of information that is not normally developed in curricula where each topic is discrete and disconnected from each other. Bruner believed that intuitive and analytical thinking should both be encouraged and rewarded. He believed the intuitive skills were under-emphasized and he reflected on the ability of experts in every field to make intuitive leaps.
He investigated motivation for learning. He felt that ideally, interest in the subject matter is the best stimulus for learning. Bruner did not like external competitive goals such as grades or class ranking.
Eventually Bruner was strongly influenced by Vygotsky’s writings and began to turn away from the intrapersonal focus he had had for learning, and began to adopt a social and political view of learning. Bruner argued that aspects of cognitive performance are facilitated by language. He stressed the importance of the social setting in the acquisition of language. His views are similar to those of Piaget, but he places more emphasis on the social influences on development. The earliest social setting is the mother-child dyad, where children work out the meanings of utterances to which they are repeatedly exposed. Bruner identified several important social devices including joint attention, mutual gaze, and turn taking. Bruner also incorporated Darwinian thinking into his basic assumptions about learning. He believed it was necessary to refer to human culture and primate evolution in order to understand growth and development. He did, however, believe there were individual differences and that no standard sequence could be found for all learners. He considered instruction as an effort to assist or shape growth. In 1996 he published a book called “The Culture of Education”. This book reflected his changes in viewpoints since the 1960’s. He adopted the point of view that culture shapes the mind and provides the raw material with which we constrict our world and our self-conception.
Four Features of Bruner’s Theory of Instruction
Predisposition to learn: This feature specifically states the experiences, which move the learner toward a love of learning in general, or of learning something in particular. Motivational, cultural, and personal factors contribute to this. Bruner emphasized social factors and early teachers and parents’ influence on this. He believed learning and problem solving emerged out of exploration. Part of the task of a teacher is to maintain and direct a child’s spontaneous explorations.
Structure of knowledge: It is possible to structure knowledge in a way that enables the learner to most readily grasp the information. This is a relative feature, as there are many ways to structure a body of knowledge and many preferences among learners. Bruner offered considerable detail about structuring knowledge. Understanding the fundamental structure of a subject makes it more comprehensible. Bruner viewed categorization as a fundamental process in the structuring of knowledge. (See the section below on categorization.) Details are better retained when placed within the contest of an ordered and structured pattern. To generate knowledge, which is transferable to other contexts, fundamental principles or patterns are best suited. The discrepancy between beginning and advanced knowledge in a subject area is diminished when instruction centers on a structure and principles of orientation. This means that a body of knowledge must be simple enough for the learner to understand it and it must be in a form recognizable to the student’s experience.
Modes of representation: visual, words, symbols.
Effective sequencing: No one sequencing will fit every learner, but in general, increasing difficulty. Sequencing, or lack of it, can make learning easier or more difficult. Bruner gave much attention to categorization of information in the construction of internal cognitive maps. He believed that perception, conceptualization, learning, decision-making, and making inferences all involved categorization. Bruner suggested a system of coding in which people form a hierarchical arrangement of related categories. Each successively higher level of categories becomes more specific, echoing Benjamin Bloom’s understanding of knowledge acquisition as well as the related idea of instructional scaffolding (Bloom’s Taxonomy).
Intellectual Development: Bruner postulated three stages of intellectual development.
The first stage he termed “Enactive”, when a person learns about the world through actions on physical objects and the outcomes of these actions. The second stage is called “Iconic” where learning can be obtained through using models and pictures. The final stage is “Symbolic” in which the learner develops the capacity to think in abstract terms. Based on this three-stage notion, Bruner recommended using a combination of concrete, pictorial then symbolic activities would lead to more effective learning.