CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT AGENTS
In this chapter we are going to learn about agents of curriculum development and their roles.
8.1 Discuss Curriculum Development Agents and their roles
Curriculum Development Agents
Curriculum development and implementation is a collaborative process. KIE, with the support and contribution of other stakeholders in education, makes the process successful. Stakeholders’ functions are aimed at providing relevant knowledge, skills, values and attitudes to educational managers and administrators for effective curriculum management. In general, these agents include:
- Kenya Institution of Education (KIE)
- Directorate of Quality Assurance and Standards (DQAS)
- Ministry of Education
- Kenya National Examinations Council (KNEC) “
- Teachers’ Service Commission (TSC) Private and public universities
- Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs), Community Based Organisations (CBOs) and Faith Based Organisations (FBOs)
- Madrasa resource centres, Kindergarten Headteachers Association (KHA)
- Montessori Association
- Kenya Education Staff Institute (KESI)
- Kenya Literature Bureau (KLB)
1. Kenya Institute of Education (KIE)
KIE was established in April 1964 as a direct result of the Conference of Institutes of Education, which was held in Mombasa, Kenya, in January 1964. The then University of East Africa, in conjunction with the Ministries of Education of Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania, and other interested bodies, sponsored the conference. The then KIE was based at Kenyatta College (now Kenyatta university), and had the following functions:
- Administer scheme of college examinations.
- Recommend to the Ministry of Education on the award of certificates.
- Serve as a center for professional activity for teachers, officers of the government and others involved in educational work.
- Promote and cooperate in the provision of conference and in-service courses for teachers and others engaged in, or intending to engage in educational work.
- Arrange for chapters and overseas courses of chapterrs.
- Promote educational research and secure due publication of the results.
- Foster improvements in educational practice.
- Provide advisory services to the Government and other organizations.
In addition, KIE was the education media service, which had started in 1963 as a School Broadcasting unit of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, and based at Mombasa House, Nairobi. In 1965, the unit was taken over by the Ministry of Education, and in July 1976 it was moved to KIE, and became the Educational Media Service (EMS) with expanded responsibilities of the production of multimedia learning resources.
Over the years, the role of the Institute has expanded to respond to emerging needs including:
- To conduct research and prepare syllabuses for pre-school education, primary education, secondary education, teacher education, special needs education, post-school, technical, business education, Non Formal Education (NFE) and Adult and Continuing Education (ACE).
- To conduct research and prepare teaching and evaluation Materials to support any syllabuses, including the preparation of books, teachers guides, mass media programmes and materials.
- To conduct in-service and workshops for teachers and teacher trainers who are involved in carrying out experiments and trials of any new syllabuses and teaching materials.
- To conduct seminars on any syllabus and teaching materials for inspectors of schools and teacher trainers.
- To conduct orientation programmes for field education officers and to keep them informed of the developments that are taking place in the school and teachers college curriculum.
- To develop and transmit programmes through mass media to support the developments that are taking place in education.
- To prepare distance education courses for students, teachers and the general public.
- To conduct courses, seminars and orientation programmes for the guidance of teachers and educational administrators.
- To conduct educational research in Kenya.
- To publish and print educational materials.
Principle Role of KIE in ECE
- To develop curriculum to be used in all ECD centres in Kenya.
- In collaboration with DQAs approve any other ECD curriculum to be used in ECD centres in the country.
- Develop/review curriculum used in diploma and certificate colleges.
- Develop curriculum to be used for the ECD proficiency course.
- Offer short courses or refresher courses for small improvement of ECD teachers and trainers
- Organize induction courses to familiarize DICECE trainers with the ECD programme in Kenya.
- Orientate DICECE officers, ECD teachers and other consumers of any newly developed curricula and support materials.
- Facilitate the training of trainers and teachers in the IIEP and HEP
- Coordinate networkers and collaborate among ECD stakeholders in Kenya and the region.
- Develop curricula for training parents, communities, ECD management committees and education field officers.
- Develop programmes and conduct short courses on childcare for house helps and other child minders.
- Develop assessment tools to be used for selection of children joining Std. 1
- In collaboration with universities, it identify areas in need of research and carry out the research to inform development of curricula and other ECD programmes.
- Develop and maintain a modern national resource centre and a library for reference by ECD stakeholders in the country and the region.
- In collaboration with DQAS evaluate the ECD programme in order to identify main strengths, challenges, emerging issues and advice MOE accordingly.
- Monitor implementation of modules and materials used for activities related to research, curriculum, school readiness, community mobilization, health and nutrition programmes.
- Conduct research and materials development at the national centre for early childhood education and monitor the same at the district centres.
- Monitor DICECE trainers undergoing the induction course during field attachment.
2. Directorate of Quality Assurance and Standards (DQAS)
It is one of the directorates in the Ministry of Education. It is charged with the maintenance and provision of quality education in Kenya. Its roles in curriculum development and implementation include:
- Assisting in gathering information on needs assessment
- Supervising the implementation of the ECDE curriculum.
- Preparing, developing and approving of syllabus and curriculum support materials, in collaboration with KIE
- Organising in-service courses for curriculum implementers: teachers, education administrators and field officers
- Participating in vetting committees that scrutinise and recommend textbooks and other support materials.
- Assessing teacher trainees during their final teaching practice.
3. The Kenya National Examinations Council (KNEC)
It was established under the KNEC Act, Chapter 225A of 1980. Its roles in curriculum development and implementation include:
- Membership at KIE panels that develop the syllabuses.
- Development of examination materials.
- Preparation and distribution of examination guidelines to all learning institutions implementing the KIE curriculum.
- Provision of guidance to teachers on examination matters.
- Examining learners in all the institutions implementing the KIE syllabus.
- Issuance of certificates to learners upon completion of a course.
- Advising the government on the achievements, challenges and weaknesses of a new curriculum based on the examination results.
4. The Teachers’ Service Commission (TSC)
It is a corporate body which was established in accordance with Section 3 of the TSC Act Cap 212 of 1967. This Act declares TSC as the sole employer of teachers of all grades, teaching in government institutions below university level. Its roles in curriculum development and implementation are:
- To recruit and employ curriculum implementers.
- To develop and maintain a code of regulations to guide the behaviour of teachers.
- To establish and maintain a teachers ‘service, adequate to the needs of public schools for curriculum implementation.
- To maintain a register of teachers and ensure a balanced teaching force in schools
- To promote and transfer teachers and ensure that adequate teachers are posted to all schools for effective curriculum implementation.
- To keep the government informed on the standards of education and training in the country
- To vet the registration and remuneration of teachers.
- To discipline teachers.
5. Public and Private Universities
They are the highest academic level and research institutions in a country. The roles of the universities in curriculum development and implementation include the following:
- Staff members’ participation in KIE panels to give professional and technical advice on curriculum development
- Staff participation in syllabus writing and revision workshops
- Supporting research on curriculum development and implementation through research grants and funds
- Training curriculum implementers, mostly post-primary teachers
- Co-coordinating and supervising post-graduate students.
- Some members of the university academic staff are appointed to KIE governing councils by the minister for education.
6. Non-Governmental Organisations, Faith Based Organisations and Community Based Organisations
The organizations (NGOs, FBOs and CBOs) play an active role in the socio-economic development of the country. Their roles include:
- Their members are incorporated in the KIE syllabus writing and revision workshops and seminars.
- Some of the members are appointed as members of the KIE governing council which is the highest decision-making organ of the KIE.
- Some of their members participate in subject and course panel meetings which scrutinise the syllabus.
- They contribute to information gathering or needs assessment on the need for curriculum change or review.
- Some NGOs, FBOs and CBOs employ curriculum implementers in learning institutions that they run. For example, ECDE centres.
- Some NGOs carry out research on curriculum development and implementation issues. Their findings inform curriculum development and implementation.
- Some of them facilitate infrastructural development in the learning centres. For example, building of classrooms and provision of support materials.
7. Private training institutions implementing KIE Curriculum
Some private institutions train ECDE personnel using the KIE curriculum. Their other roles include:
- Participation in needs assessment and information gathering to inform curriculum change or revision.
- Training of curriculum implementers like teachers through in-service and pre-service programmes.
- Development of curriculum support materials such as training modules and children’s storybooks.
- Co-ordination and assessment of their teacher trainees on teachings practice before the final assessment by the ministry.
- Participation in syllabus writing and revision workshops and seminars.
8. Madrasa Resource Centre
Islamic Integrated Education Programme (IIEP) was established in 1985 by the Government of Kenya and UNICEF. In the madrasa, young children were only introduced to Islamic education. The aim of IIEP was to integrate Islamic education and secular education in the madrasas. Its roles include:
- Provision of information during needs assessment, especially on issues that touch on Islamic education.
- Participation in syllabus writing and revision workshops.
- Development of curriculum support materials, especially those that are used in the implementation of IIEP.
- It employs and supports curriculum implementers, the madrasa teachers.
- It equips the madrasa centres with teaching-learning materials.
9. Kindergarten Headmistress Association (KHA)
It was founded by a group of head teachers in Nairobi to help in the training of pre-school teachers. KHA members follow their own curriculum. However, the association plays a vital role in the ECDE curriculum development and implementation by:
- Giving information during needs assessment researches.
- Providing an alternative ECDE curriculum, whose ideas are used to enrich the official ECDE curriculum development and implementation.
- Training curriculum implementers such as pre-school teachers who are employed in public and private ECDE centres.
- Establishing and equipping pre-school centres with teaching learning materials.
10. The Montessori Association
Montessori Association is an association that brings together ECDE institutions that follow Dr Maria Montessori’s curriculum model. The curriculum model is derived from the philosophy of Dr Maria Montessori. The association play an important role in ECDE curriculum development and implementation in Kenya. The roles include:
- Provision of information during needs assessment.
- Provision of an alternative ECDE curriculum. It’s content also enriches the implementation of the NACECE/DICECE curriculum.
- Training of ECDE teachers.
- Development of curriculum support materials. Some of their teaching-learning materials are also used in the implementation of the NACECE/DICECE curriculum model..
11. Kenya Education Staff Institute (KESI)
It was established in 1981 but was given legal status in 1988 through Legal Notice 565/1988. its roles include:
- Identification of staff educational development needs and provision of training to meet those needs
- Organising and conducting training for educational managers and administrators
- Co-ordinating, preparing and publishing instructional materials for educational professionals and administrators
- Producing and disseminating information on education and training programmes
- Conducting educational research on staff training and development programmes.
12. Kenya Literature Bureau (KLB)
It was established in 1980 by an Act of parliament. Its roles are:
- Publication and distribution of a variety of books, periodicals, journals and magazines on education and curriculum.
- Production and promoting of low cost curriculum support materials like textbooks.
- To encourage Kenyan authors to write books and reference materials to be used in curriculum implementation.
- To sell educational materials at reasonable prices to schools and other educational institutions. This supports curriculum implementation.