CHAPTER SIX ASSESSMENT 6 a i). Define the term “assessment” as it pertains to the teaching of history and government and examine its significance. Assessment is a systematic process used to determine the extent to which educational objectives are achieved. This is done through measurement and evaluation, Although the terms “measurement” and ”evaluation are often … More History and Government: What is assessment and what is its importance in the teaching of History and Government?
CHAPTER SIX 6a ii). Analyze the different types of assessments. Types of Assessments There are two types of assessment: formative and summative evaluation. Formative evaluation This refers to an assessment of learning while teaching/learning is in progress e.g. oral questions, class tasks, assignments, tests and end of term examinations. It is used to identify … More History and Government: What are the different types of assessments?
CHAPTER SIX 6a iii). Explain the functions of formative evaluation. Functions of formative evaluation This type of assessment has the following functions: To provide the teachers with knowledge concerning students’ entry behaviour, To provide teachers and learners with specific feedback regarding students’ success in mastery of skills, attitudes or knowledge. To help teachers determine … More History and Government: What are the functions of formative evaluation?
CHAPTER SIX 6a iv).Explain the purposes of summative evaluation. This type of evaluation has the following purposes: To determine the effectiveness and worthiness of a programme, e.g. 8:4:4 in order to make reliable decisions about educational planning in terms of time, humanpower, and other resources. To predict the general trend in the teaching/learning process. To … More History and Government: What is the purpose of summative evaluation in teaching?
CHAPTER SIX 6a v). Examine the different methods through which a teacher can use to assess his students. How do we assess? Assessment could be done through the following means: Direct observation, focusing on attitudes, values and skills. Questionnaires that are used to evaluate attitudes, skills and knowledge, Checklists focusing on certain traits exhibited. Oral … More History and Government:What are the different methods through which a teacher can use to assess his students?
CHAPTER SIX 6 b i). State the definition of a test and state what teachers should consider while setting a test. A test can be defined as: The presentation of a standard set of questions through which one obtains a measure characteristic of a person. A form of examination for evaluating the performance and capabilities … More History and Government: What is the definition of a test and what should teachers consider while setting a test?
CHAPTER SIX 6 b ii). Analyze the characteristics of a good test. Characteristics of a good test There are basic characteristics to consider in test construction. These are validity, reliability, objectivity, usability and discrimination. Validity It refers to the degree to which the test measures what it is supposed to measure. In other words, it … More History and Government:What are the characteristics of a good test?
CHAPTER SIX 6 b iii). Examine the types of tests necessary in the successful teaching and learning of History and Government. Types of Tests There are two types of tests, which are frequently used to test students’ knowledge. These are objective and essay tests. Objective tests These are tests, which tend to reduce the amount of … More History and Government:What types of tests are necessary in the successful teaching and learning of History and Government?
CHAPTER SIX 6b iv).State the advantages of objective tests. Objective tests have a number of advantages: They allow for a wide content coverage. They can be used to encourage learners to learn facts, concepts and principles. They encourage students to pay close attention to what they are studying because the questions call for specific information. … More History and Government: What are some of the Advantages of Objective tests?
CHAPTER SIX 6 b v).List the limitations of objective tests. Limitations of objective tests Objective tests have these limitations: Setting is time-consuming and expensive in terms of paper. They tend to test recall or factual information rather than creativity. They tend to measure partial and superficial knowledge rather than broad conceptual understanding. They are not … More What are the limitations of objective tests in assessment?
CHAPTER SIX 6 b v).List the types of objective questions. Types of objective questions There are many types of objective questions, among them are: multiple choices type; supply item category (completion lest); true-false matching exercise.
CHAPTER SIX 6 b vi). Identify how to construct multiple-choice items. How to construct multiple-choice items The following steps should be followed when constructing multiple items: Choose relevant and important topics from which to develop items. Design statements that imply situations that students have not previously encountered. Write the stem (the question) first. Try to … More History and Government: How does a teacher construct multiple choice items?
CHAPTER SIX 6 b vii). State the advantages of matching items as a means of evaluation. The matching exercise is useful in: examining the ability to see the relationship between events and categories of statements, identifying numbered places or parts on a map, charts and diagrams and testing in ‘who’, ‘what’, ‘when’ and where’ situations
CHAPTER SIX 6 c i). List the Characteristics of essay questions. Characteristics of essay questions Essay questions have these qualities: They require students to organize and express themselves in their own words They consist of a few questions, which require lengthy answers, They are relatively easy to prepare and hard to mark accurately. Their quality … More History and Government: What are the characteristics of essay questions?
CHAPTER SIX 6c ii).Give situations in which a teacher should use essay questions in evaluating history and government. When to use essay questions They can be used when: The group is small. The teacher wishes to encourage to the fullest, the development of the learner’s skill in written expression. The teacher wants students to organize … More History and Government:When ought a teacher use essay questions in evaluating history and government?
CHAPTER SIX 6 c iii). Examine some of the limitations of using essay questions in assessment? Scoring is highly subjective because the examiner can at times be impressed with the literary skills and handwriting of the learners. This can seriously impair the validity of marks awarded in essay tests. Grading calls for expert judgment … More History and Government: What are some of the limitations of using essay questions in assessment?
CHAPTER SIX 6 c iv). Analyze the guidelines a teacher should follow while setting essay questions. Restrict essay tests to objectives that are best achieved through this type of testing e.g. analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Avoid vague terms that would elicit contradictory responses from learners. Structure items in such a way that an overall understanding … More History and Government: Which guidelines should a teacher follow while setting essay questions?
CHAPTER SIX 6c v).Define what a table of specification is Table of Specification When preparing tests one should be guided by a table of specifications. This can be defined as a chart for a blue print in which content to be covered in a test as well as levels of cognitive learning (behaviour) are specified. … More History and Government: What is a table of specification?
CHAPTER SIX 6c vi). Examine the Importance of Table of Specification Importance of Table of Specification The tabie of specification is important in test construction because: it identifies as clearly as possible the scope of emphasis of the test. it helps the setter to determine the levels of learning (type of objectives) to be assessed … More History and Government: What is the relevance of the table of specification in today’s teaching environment?
CHAPTER SIX 6 c vii). Identify the steps a teacher ought to follow in preparing a table of specification. How to prepare a table of specification It can be prepared in the following ways: Identify the content area to be covered. Prepare a grid chart. List the content area to be tested vertically in the … More History and Government: How does a teacher prepare a table of specification?
CHAPTER SIX 6 b viii). Identify the limitations of matching items as a method of evaluation in teaching. Limitations-of matching items The exercise has among others the following limitations: The learner spends too much time searching for the correct response especially if a complex matching. It is difficult to design a matching exercise that will … More History and Government: What are the limitations of matching items as a method of evaluation in teaching?