CHAPTER TWO: TEACHING STRATEGIES AND METHODS IN HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT 2 a. i).The importance of lecture method As a method of teaching, lecture method is important because; it is used to supplement other methods of teaching. In fact, there are a few circumstances if any, where one method of instruction can be used … More History and Government:What is the importance of the lecture method?
CHAPTER TWO 2 a ii). State situations which invite the use of the lecture method. Situations which invite the use of lecture method Situations which invite the use of lecture method Opinions may vary as to when a lecture should be given in history teaching and learning but the following situations seem to offer suitable opportunities. At … More History and Government: Which situations invite the use of the lecture method?
CHAPTER TWO 2a iii). Describe the methods a teacher should follow in order to give an effective lecture. How to give a lecture When giving a lecture the teacher should do the following: Organize the lecture in three stages: introduction, main body and conclusion. Start the lecture with some interest-catching device to capture the learners’ … More History and Government: What are some of the methods a teacher can follow so as to be able to give an effective lecture?
CHAPTER TWO 2b i).Explain story telling as a method of teaching history and its importance. Story-Telling / Narrative It is one of the most suitable and important methods of teaching history because it: Presents to the learners clear, vivid, interesting and orderly sequences of events. Through this, the learners visualize these events the way they … More History and Government: What value does storytelling bring to the learning experience?
CHAPTER TWO 2b ii). State some of the qualities of a good story that a teacher ought to employ Qualities of a good story A good story should be; Relevant to what is being or is to be taught. It should also have important factual information of educational value. Interesting, dramatic and exciting, evoking … More History and government: What are some of the qualities of a good story that a teacher ought to employ?
CHAPTER TWO 2b iii).Examine the impact of question and answer method n the overall scope of teaching and learning history. Question and Answer Method Questioning technique lies at the heart of effective history teaching and learning. Il is one of the most important means of stimulating thinking and learning, According to Kochher (1992) “the teacher … More History and Government: Can you examine the impact of Question and Answer Method in the Overall teaching and learning of history?
CHAPTER TWO 2b iv). Explain the purpose of the questioning method. Purpose of questioning Questioning technique should not be used for the sake of it but rather it should be applied to: Revise work already covered and expose difficulties which the learners may be faced with so that they can be solved. Prepare learners for … More History and Government: Why should a teacher employ questioning as a teaching method?
CHAPTER TWO 2b v)Explain some of the characteristics of good questions which will enable a teacher teach effectively. Characteristics of good questions For questions to be rated as good, they must be: Meaningful and relevant. ^- Definite and direct. Clear and coherent. Simple but challenging enough and thought-provoking. Suitable to the age, level and the … More History and Government: What are some of the characteristics of good questions?
CHAPTER TWO 2c i). Analyze the various categories of questions and how they can be applied in day to day teaching situations. Categories of questions Basically, there are two categories of questions whose aim is to enable the teacher to test the learners level of understanding. There are two categories of questions: lower order or … More History and Government: What are some of the categories of questions and how can a teacher properly apply them for maximum impact?
CHAPTER TWO 2 c ii). State the essential guidelines to good questioning techniques. Guidelines to questioning technique The following suggestions are useful to a teacher who intends to use questioning; • The questions should be related to the objective of the lesson. • The questions should be within the students’ background, experience and ability. • … More History and Government: What are some of the guidelines a teacher ought to follow to ensure he employs good questioning techniques
CHAPTER TWO 2c iii). Explain what a history teacher should desist from doing while employing the questioning technique? Caution to Questioning technique In using questioning technique, the history teacher should avoid the following: The learners answering-in unison. Such a response does not enable the teacher to differentiate between those who have information on the question … More History and Government: What should a history teacher not do while employing the questioning technique?
CHAPTER TWO 2c iv).Explain the guidelines a teacher has to follow when handling student’s answers. Guidelines to follow when handling students’ answers In dealing with the students’ responses (answers), the teacher should do the following: Give credit for effort made by commending good answers with encouraging remarks such as “Good”, 1’nr wrung answers you should … More History and Government:Which guidelines does a teacher have to follow when handling student’s answers?
CHAPTER TWO 2c v). Explain how a teacher deals with wrong answers from students? Use the following approach to deal with wrong answers from the learners: If the purpose of the question was the recall of factual material, the teacher may use another student to answer the question. If the question asked calls for a … More History and Government: How does a teacher deal with wrong answers from students?
CHAPTER TWO 2c vi). Explain guidelines which can be followed by teachers when dealing with learner’s questions. The following are guidelines, which can be utilized when dealing with learners’ questions: Show pleasure and appreciate learners’ efforts when they ask if questions. Treat students’ questions with respect, Consider all questions no matter how silly they may … More History and Government:What are some of the guidelines which can be followed by teachers when dealing with learner’s questions?
CHAPTER TWO 2 d i). Explain the limitations of questioning? Although questioning is an effective approach to history teaching and learning, tile teacher needs to use it cautiously because of these limitations: II is time consuming, It is more applicable in topics the students are familiar with. Pre-planned questions call for more involvement in the … More History and Government: Are there any limitations of the questioning method? If so, what are they?
CHAPTER TWO 2d ii). Analyze the discussion method of teaching. It can be defined as a critical examination by argument. As a method, it is an approach in which the students under the teacher’s guidance exchange points of view so as to arrive at a collective decision or conclusion on a given issue/ topic. It … More History and Government: Can you define and analyze the discussion method of teaching?
CHAPTER TWO 2d iii). Explain the importance of the discussion method Importance of discussion Discussion technique is important in the teaching and learning of history because it: Stimulates learners’ mental activity, thus leading to a lively discussion Develops fluency in expression which is necessary in learning and in adult life, Encourages learners to discover information … More History and Government: What are some of the importances of the discussion method?
CHAPTER TWO 2d iv). Explain some of the considerations to be made by the teacher in the discussion method. The teacher should: Act as a leader and initiator of the discussion and should maintain class control. Be a guide and a facilitator of the discussion. First present the topic of the discussion Make seating arrangement … More History and Government: What are some of the considerations to be made by the teacher in the discussion method?
CHAPTER TWO 2d v). Explain some of the considerations to be made by the learner in the discussion method. They have to consider the following before and during the discussion The learners should do extensive reading on the topic prior to discussion. Speakers should be acknowledged by either the group leader (small group discussion) or … More History and Government: What are some of the considerations to be be made by the learner in the discussion method?
CHAPTER TWO 2d vi) When to use discussion method Discussion method could be used when: The teacher wants to get opinions/ideas from the students. Dealing with topics which require flow of information from the teacher to the students and students to the teacher. The teacher wants to clarify situations and examples. The objective is to develop … More History and Government:When should a teacher use the discussion method
CHAPTER TWO 2d vii).Discuss the limitations of discussion method in teaching today. Limitations of discussion method Discussion as a teaching and learning method has a nurnber of limitations for example: It is time consuming. It may give opportunities for some students to show off. It is difficult to achieve maximum interaction when the … More History and Government: What are some of the limitations teachers encounter while employing the use of the discussion method of teaching?
CHAPTER TWO 2d viii). Highlight the nuances of whole class discussion and its implementation. Whole Class Discussion Whole class discussion often than not comes up as an Impromptu activity, It comes in the midst of student-teacher talk when an Issue urines that requires to be clarified further, At other times a disunion can lit a … More History and Government: What is a whole class discussion? How can it be employed by teachers today?
CHAPTER TWO 2d ix). Explain the nuances of group discussion and how a teacher can employ them in teaching the curriculum? Small Group Discussion Under small group discussion, we have buzz groups, group reports, brainstorming, debates, panel among others. It Involve forming groups from the whole class, Groups ranging from 2-12 students could generate it … More History and Government:Can you explain the nuances of group discussion and how a teacher can employ them in teaching the curriculum?
CHAPTER TWO 2e i) Discuss how a teacher can effectively employ the use of Group reports in teaching. Group reports In using group reports, the teacher should do the following: Give students a topic to discuss in groups of 3-6 depending on the size of the class. In a large class, assign different sub-topics to … More History and Government:How can a teacher in History and Government effectively employ the use of Group reports in teaching?
CHAPTER TWO 2 e ii). Explain the efficacy of brainstorming in the teaching process Brainstorming In brainstorming, this procedure should be followed: The teacher introduces a topic or a problem/question to the class and asks members of the class/group for their ideas, solutions or comments on the issue. The class/group responds with whatever comes to the mind. … More History and Government: How can the use of brainstorming aid the teaching process?
CHAPTER TWO 2e iii). Explain the efficacy of debating in the teaching processs Debates The most formal of all discussion techniques is the debate. It requires learners to hold formal argument on a given issue. It is an important technique in history teaching and learning because it enables participants to see the other side of … More History and Government: How does debating aid the teaching process?
CHAPTER TWO 2e iv). Explain how a teacher can organize a good debate. How to organize a debate A debate could be organized as follows; Select a topic or a question to be debated on. Allow students to form two teams, one arguing for the topic and another arguing against it. Select a chairman and … More History and Government: How does a teacher organize a good debate?
CHAPTER TWO 2e v). Explain the guidelines for panel discussion Guidelines for panel discussion After the members of a panel have been identified, the following should be carried out: The panelists should prepare adequately on the selected topic with the help of the teacher who will guide them on their roles and the procedure to … More History and Government:What are the guidelines for panel discussion?
CHAPTER TWO 2 f i). Explain Role play as a method of teaching. Role Play Method It is defined as an unrehearsed dramatization in which Hit players try to clarify a situation by acting out the roles of the participants in the situation. Selected members of a class act out or imitate a situation/condition or … More History and Government:What is role playing as a method of teaching?
CHAPTER TWO 2f ii). Examine the purpose of role playing in the teaching of History and Government. Purpose of role-playing Role-play has these purposes: It helps people see a situation through other peoples’ point of view. It prepares learners to fit in different situations in life as they play different roles, It helps in clarifying … More History and Government: What is the purpose of role playing in teaching?
CHAPTER TWO 2f iii). Give examples of History and Government topics which can be taught through the use of role playing. There are many History and Government topics that can be taught through the use of this method. These include; Biographies of political leaders, e.g. Jomo Kenyatta’s arrest, trial, coronation as president. Trade, e.g. local … More History and Government: Can you give examples of History and Government topics which can be taught through the use of role playing?
CHAPTER TWO: 2f iv). Describe the organization of role playing. Organization of role playing A teacher could organize vole-playing using the following stages: Select a topic that the class understands very well. Give the purpose for rote-playing, Explain areas of emphasis in the topic Decide on the number of the players. Encourage learners to volunteer … More History and Government: History and Government: How can a teacher organize for a role playing exercise?
CHAPTER TWO 2f v). Discuss the limitations of role playing. Although the importance of role-play cannot be underestimated, it has also some limitations e.g. : It is not realistic enough and as such it can lead to misconceptions, Sometimes the learners take it as a form of entertainment and as a result they lose its … More History and Government: Can you examine some of the limitations encountered by teachers who employ the use of role playing in teaching of History and Government?
CHAPTER TWO 2f vi). Expound on the concept of educational visits in relation to the teaching of History and Government Educational Visits These are visits by learners to venues of learning through which they (learners) come into first-hand contact with people, places and things around them. Through these visits, learners are involved in the following: … More History and Government: What are educational visits in relation to the teaching of History and Government?
CHAPTER TWO 2f vii). Analyze the importance of educational visits. Importance of educational visits There are important in the teaching and learning of history because: They supplement and enrich curriculum experiences, They provide hands-on experiences to learners when they come in contact with people, places and things around them, thus developing a sense of reality. … More History and Government: Is there any importance of educational visits or is it all just a waste of resources for teaching?
CHAPTER TWO 2f viii). Examine the considerations to be made when using educational visits as a method of teaching by teachers. Consideration to be made by the teacher intending to use educational visits The teacher should answer the following questions positively before embarking on a visit: (1) Will the visit be relevant to educational objectives? … More History and Government:What Consideration should a teacher who intends to use educational visits make before embarking on it?
CHAPTER TWO 2f ix). Examine the preparations to be made before an Educational visit. Preparation to be made before an Educational Visit Preparations must be made both by the teacher and the learners. The teacher should do the following: Identify a relevant place. Discuss the matter with the head of the school for approval. Plan … More History and Government: What are the preparations which ought to be made by a teacher before an educational visit?
CHAPTER TWO 2f x). Examine how learners should prepare for the educational trips made by the teachers Just like the teacher, the learners must prepare for the visit, Their preparation should include the following: Understanding the objectives of the visit in advance. Being clear on what to look for during the trip. Preparing questions/questionnaires in … More History and Government:How should learners prepare for the educational trips made by the teachers
CHAPTER TWO 2f xi). Examine what a teacher should do during educational trip visits. During the visit During the visit or trip, both the teacher and the learners have these responsibilities; The teacher should ensure that there is proper conduct in the bus during the trip, e.g. remaining on one’s seat, not sticking arms and … More History and Government:What should the teacher do during educational trip visits?
CHAPTER TWO 2 g i). Examine what a teacher ought to do in the follow up after the visits? Follow-up after the visit For the teacher to assess the success and benefits of the trip, one should: take about one or two lessons after the visit to consolidate the findings. give time to group leaders … More History and Government:What should a teacher do in the follow up after the visits?
CHAPTER TWO 2g ii). Examine the impact of imaginary educational visits. Imaginary educational visits A very stimulating approach of teaching history would-be to weave facts around an imaginary visit to the actual place where events took place. This approach could be used under the following situations: When teaching remote history, the teacher should take the … More History and Government:What is the impact of imaginary educational visits?
CHAPTER TWO 2g iii). Suggest guidelines for imaginary visits? Suggested guidelines for imaginary visits The following is a useful guide for a teacher who intends to use imaginary visits in a history lesson: The teacher should choose a place of interest, which is relevant to the topic under study. If the place is within reach … More History and Government: Can you suggest guidelines a teacher can use for imaginary visits?
CHAPTER TWO 2g iv). Give a list of follow-up activities to be employed by the teacher after the visit Follow-up activities after the visit would include: Asking oral questions; discussing about people and places visited; drawing e.g. people at work, objects seen, a simple map; Model making e.g. houses, objects acting a relevant scene; … More History and Government: Can you suggest a list of follow-up activities that can be employed by the teacher after the educational visit?
CHAPTER TWO 2 h i). Define the Project method. Project Method Project method is a child-centered approach to learning. It aims at developing the child into a decent worthwhile citizen by actively involving one into the learning process and freeing the individual from traditional school environment, which is usually marked with passivity and lacks keenness … More History and Government:What is Project method and how can it be applied by a teacher?
CHAPTER TWO 2h ii). Examine types of projects. Types of projects There are different types of projects, which can be used in History and Government teaching and learning. These are: Producer type: The learners are expected to construct real things and models, e.g. tools used by early man, modes of transport and court of arms. … More History and Government: What are the types of projects?
CHAPTER TWO 2h iii).Examine the criteria for a good project? Criteria for a good project For a project to be good, it must satisfy these criteria: Relevancy: It should be relevant to the instructional objective and topic under study. ‘ Usefulness: It should result in a worthwhile end product fulfilling a long-standing need. Economical: It … More History and government What are the criteria for a good project?
CHAPTER TWO 2h iv). Discuss the preparation for a project. Preparation for a project In planning to use a project approach to teaching and learning of history, the following guidelines would be useful: The teacher/students should identify1 a project to work on, e.g. watching a film, constructing something or solving a problem. The teacher should … More History and Government: Which guidelines should a teacher follow in the preparation for a project?
CHAPTER TWO 2h v). Analyze the advantages of the project method? Advantages of project method Project method has a number of advantages. Prepares the child for life outside school by acquainting one with real problems of life. Promotes a sense of responsibility and cooperation among the learners as they work together to achieve a … More History and Government: What are the advantages of the project method?
CHAPTER TWO 2h vi). Examine the disadvantages of the project method. Disadvantages of project method Project method suffers from a number of disadvantages: It upsets the routine work of the school; this is especially the case with fieldwork. It is not possible to apply all the subjects in a single project. Sometimes teachers end up … More History and Government: What are the disadvantages of the project method?