History and Government: What are schemes of work and what are their importance?

CHAPTER FIVE PREPARATION FOR TEACHING 5a i).Define schemes of work and explain their importance. Schemes of work A scheme of work can be defined as a breakdown of the syllabus into manageable units, which could be covered in a specific period of time. It could last for a week(s), month(s) or a whole year. What is … More History and Government: What are schemes of work and what are their importance?

History and Government:How does a teacher make a scheme of work?

CHAPTER FIVE 5 a iii). Describe the scheming process. The scheming process As a part of the scheming process the teacher should do the following: Obtain the most current History and Government syllabus. Have thorough knowledge of the syllabus requirements and its interpretation Do proper research into the area to be taught In order to … More History and Government:How does a teacher make a scheme of work?

History and Government: What is the importance of Instructional objectives?

CHAPTER FIVE 5a vii). Explain the importance of Instructional objectives. Instructional objectives are important because of the following: They provide a guide for choosing subject matter (content) to be taught, in designing appropriate teaching methods and selection of learning materials depending on the amount of content to be covered. They help in allocating teaching time. … More History and Government: What is the importance of Instructional objectives?

Instructional Methods: Is teaching a science or an art?

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1b. Teaching has been Defined as both an art and a science. Explain
Teaching has been defined as both an art and a science. As an art it calls for inspiration, intuition, talent and creativity. Gage (1984) describes it as an instrumental or practical art which requires improvisation, and spontaneity. As a science it requires one to have knowledge and skills on how to teach, how to select and apply the correct formula for each classroom situation. … More Instructional Methods: Is teaching a science or an art?

Instructional Methods: A Model of Good teaching

CHAPTER ONE

1d(ii). Explain a model of good teaching
Diagnosing learners entry behavior: the teacher must diagnose the present state of knowledge the learners have, their experiences, needs and desires as a basis of determining what should be taught and where to begin. The teacher has to relate the content to the child’s world so that it makes sense and should strive not only to encourage creative abilities of each pupil but also help to develop them emotionally and socially.
More Instructional Methods: A Model of Good teaching

Instructional Methods: Principles of Teaching

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1d(iii). Explain the Principles of Teaching
Respect for each child: This is where the teacher’s procedure of teaching should recognize the rights of children as human beings with respect and dignity. Each child should therefore, be respected and treated as an individual whose personal development and fulfillment is an end in itself. … More Instructional Methods: Principles of Teaching

Instructional Methods: What makes one teacher more effective than another?

CHAPTER ONE:INTRODUCTION
1d(iv). State the characteristics of effective teaching
Although effective teaching must be based on the academic ability of the teacher, the command of the subject matter and the ability to assess the learners’ academic achievements and social learning, there are other higher attributes required. … More Instructional Methods: What makes one teacher more effective than another?

Instructional Methods: What is Reflective Teaching and is Lack of Reflective Teaching to blame for poor teaching practices in African schools?

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1d (v). What is Reflective teaching and is Lack of Reflective Teaching to blame for poor teaching practices in African schools?
The educational sector in Africa is indeed in dire need of better policies and an overhaul of existing infrastructure. The Africa Learning Barometer, a new interactive study produced by the Brookings Center for Universal Education, indicates that currently only about half of sub-Saharan Africa’s 128 million school-aged children currently attending school are likely to acquire the basic skills needed for them to live healthy and productive lives. The research further showed that poor female children who were attending schools in rural regions were far more likely not to be learning the critical skills, such as reading, writing and math.
More Instructional Methods: What is Reflective Teaching and is Lack of Reflective Teaching to blame for poor teaching practices in African schools?

Instructional Methods: What are the characteristics of Reflective Teaching?

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1 d(vi). Define the Characteristics of Reflective Teaching
Reflective teaching implies an active an active concern with the immediate aims and consequences of the classroom practice as well as means and technical efficiency. This refers to one being critical of aims and objectives of education in one’s country. … More Instructional Methods: What are the characteristics of Reflective Teaching?

Instructional Methods: Is there a difference between being Learned and being Educated?

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1e(i). Discuss the difference between a learned and an educated person.
Whereas a learned person has acquired knowledge he is unable to use the knowledge selflessly and in a moral way to aid the members of the community. On the other hand the educated individual who is educated is informed … More Instructional Methods: Is there a difference between being Learned and being Educated?

Instructional Methods:Discuss the functions of education in society?

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1e (ii). What is education and what is its function in society?
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, discussion, teaching, timing and directed research. … More Instructional Methods:Discuss the functions of education in society?

Instructional Methods: What exactly is training and what does it involve?

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1e(v). Define the term training. It is the act or process of imparting or acquiring particular knowledge or skills, as for a profession.

Features of training

Consistency of practice.- The trainee practices the skill from time to time, over and over again.
Repetition: the activities involved are greatly strengthened by their repeated use; and
Transfer value: The skill learned must be transferred from one situation to another. … More Instructional Methods: What exactly is training and what does it involve?

Instructional Methods: Skill Training and the Systemic Approach

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1 e(vi). Explain the Systemic approach used in skill training
A trainer (supervisor) dividing the content of the training program in self-contained stages, where each can be taught as a unit. Each stage is examined to identify and describe “key points.”
More Instructional Methods: Skill Training and the Systemic Approach

Instructional Methods: Discuss the role of Education in the Society Today

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1e(vii). Discuss the role of Education in the Society Today
Definition: Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, discussion, teaching, timing and directed research. … More Instructional Methods: Discuss the role of Education in the Society Today

Instructional Methods: What are the main characteristics of a system?

CHAPTER TWO:System’s Approach
2a(ii). What are the main characteristics of a system?
Main features (characteristics) of a system
A goal: Every system has a goal which is the target of attainment towards which it works and it gives direction to a system. All members work towards the achievement of the goal.
Elements: It has more than one element (parts) which are interrelated and interacting subjects of a system. … More Instructional Methods: What are the main characteristics of a system?

Instructional Methods: How can education be a system?

CHAPTER TWO: System’s Approach
2a(iii). Show how the concept of a system can be applied to an educational system
Application of the concept of system to an Educational system
According to Hooper(1971), education is a system because it has a set of inputs (money, children etc.) which are subject to a process, in order to attain certain objectives which appear as outputs (educated children, etc.).It is further argued that education can be viewed as a system because of a self-adjusting combination of interacting people and things designed by humans to accomplish some predetermined purpose.

More Instructional Methods: How can education be a system?

Instructional methods: How is a school a system?

CHAPTER TWO: System’s Approach
2a(iv).Describe how a school is a system
The school is seen as a system because it has all the components and features of a system. It revives learners and makes an effort to transform them through the process of education. After school, the products should be mature and useful to the society. Thus, schools have goals which they ought to achieve. These goals are received from the society through the Ministry of Education where they are stated in the syllabus and other official documents and given to all schools in the republic of Kenya. … More Instructional methods: How is a school a system?

Instructional Methods: Can you explain the system’s approach models in teaching and learning?

CHAPTER TWO: System’s Approach

2a(v).Explain the system’s approach models in teaching and learning
A linear model is a representation of a simple system consisting of three basic elements: input, process, and output in line. In the case of education, learners are the input who are put in the educational system and processed at different levels of education, coming out as educated individuals i.e. doctors, lawyers, teachers, and scientists (output of the system).
More Instructional Methods: Can you explain the system’s approach models in teaching and learning?

Instructional Methods: Goals of education…What are they?

Chapter 3: Aims and Objectives in Education
3a)(i).Define the terms aims objectives and goals of education
Education aims are ideals enshrined in a body of values held dear by both the society and the individuals in that society.

Objectives of education refer to the intended outcome of the process of education. They specify what learners are expected to achieve at the end of learning or training. … More Instructional Methods: Goals of education…What are they?

Instructional Methods: Is there a difference between long-term and short-term aims and objectives of education?

Chapter 3 Aims and Objectives in Education 3a(ii).Differentiate between long-term and short-term aims and objectives of education. Objectives can either be long-term or short-term. Long term objectives  are those related to education in general and even at different levels of educational system and specific subjects in the curriculum. The short-term objectives, on the other hand, … More Instructional Methods: Is there a difference between long-term and short-term aims and objectives of education?

Instructional Methods: The relationship between objectives and the levels of achievement in the cognitive domain.

Chapter 3
Aims and Objectives in Education
3b (i)Relate objectives to levels of achievement in the cognitive domain.
Knowledge level: this is learning at the lowest level where the learner is expected to recall specifics and universals, the recall of methods and processes or the recall of a pattern, structure or setting. The student is expected to store in the mind certain information and later remember the information to be recalled. … More Instructional Methods: The relationship between objectives and the levels of achievement in the cognitive domain.

Instructional Methods: Heuristic and Expository strategies of teaching

Chapter 4 Teaching Strategies 4a i). Define expository and heuristic strategies of teaching.          A teaching strategy is a way and means of organizing and facilitating learning experiences. There are two teaching strategies namely: expository (transmission) and heuristic(discovery) strategies. Expository is an approach to teaching which a teacher uses to impart or expose knowledge to … More Instructional Methods: Heuristic and Expository strategies of teaching

Instructional Methods: What factors are you as a teacher to consider when choosing a teaching strategy?

Chapter 4 Teaching Strategies 4a ii). Identify the factors to be considered in choosing a teaching strategy. The selection of teaching strategies will depend on whatever approach will be most effective and more efficient in enhancing the learning process. One can be guided by the following considerations in choosing a strategy. The nature of the … More Instructional Methods: What factors are you as a teacher to consider when choosing a teaching strategy?

Instructional Methods: The Characteristics of Teaching Strategies

Chapter 4 Teaching Strategies 4a iii).Identify characteristics of teaching strategies. Characteristics of Teaching Strategies Expository Heuristic Teacher-dominance in content impartation   Learner-centered with the learner as the focus of the learning/teaching process The teacher provides students with information, examples, applications, definitions, explanations, generalizations, summaries, notes and even evaluations.  This done through explanations or demonstration Students’ … More Instructional Methods: The Characteristics of Teaching Strategies

Instructional Methods: Are you able to differentiate between Inductive and Deductive reasoning?

Chapter 4 Teaching Strategies 4 a v). Differentiate deductive and inductive teaching These two types of teaching are related to expository and heuristic strategies of teaching. Deductive is defined as an approach to teaching where generalization is stated first and then applied to a number of examples. It includes framing a concept or generalization and … More Instructional Methods: Are you able to differentiate between Inductive and Deductive reasoning?

Instructional Methods: How can each approach be used in teaching a specific subject in the curriculum?

Chapter 4 Teaching Strategies 4 b i). Explain how each approach could be used in teaching a specific subject in the curriculum. An example of deductive teaching in a biology lesson Establish a set of definition/or characteristics determining what constitutes an amphibian Have students identify a list of examples of animals that live on land … More Instructional Methods: How can each approach be used in teaching a specific subject in the curriculum?

Instructional Methods: What are some of the teaching methods that fall under expository strategy?

Chapter 4
Teaching Strategies
4b ii).Identify and explain some teaching methods which fall under expository strategy e.g. lecture, demonstration etc.
Lecture method
It is a technique of teaching by means of the spoken word where information is given orally generating understanding to the learners. There are two forms of lecturing: formal and informal. A formal lecture is purely verbal and communication is basically one-way, from the speaker to the listener and from the listener to the speaker. Informal lecture is normally interrupted by questions, comments, suggestions, viewing, observations, demonstrations etc. The students are given room to participate in various ways as the lecture progresses. … More Instructional Methods: What are some of the teaching methods that fall under expository strategy?

Instructional Methods: What are the limitations of the lecture method and how can they be remedied?

  Chapter 4 Teaching Strategies 4b iv). State the limitations of lecture method. The following are shortcomings of lecture method Poor retention of learned material. Leads to rote learning encouraging cramming instead of understanding. Does not lead to the development of inquisitive minds among learners. Boring, uninspiring and monotonous. Does not cater for individual differences. Tends … More Instructional Methods: What are the limitations of the lecture method and how can they be remedied?

Instructional Methods: Is the Lecturer method beneficial? State its advantages

Chapter 4 Teaching Strategies 4b iii). State the Advantages of Lecture method The importance of lecturing in teaching cannot be underestimated. Lang et al (1995) noted that a good lecture is like is like a good speech; it can be stimulating and challenging and can maintain the high-interest level in students. Apart from this, lecturing as … More Instructional Methods: Is the Lecturer method beneficial? State its advantages

Instructional Methods:Which are the teaching methods that fall under heuristic strategy of teaching?

Chapter five Facilitation Methods 5a i).Identify and explain teaching methods which fall under the heuristic strategy of teaching e.g. questioning, discussion, debate, project, field trips etc. Questioning It is a carefully designed string of questions which lead the learner to arrive at an answer.” Questioning is at the core of any teaching “the teacher who … More Instructional Methods:Which are the teaching methods that fall under heuristic strategy of teaching?

Instructional Methods: What is the importance of questioning?

Chapter five Facilitation Methods 5 a ii). Explain the purpose of questioning. According to Pollard(1997) asking questions provides immediate feedback on how participants are thinking and on what they know and it accounts for a high proportion  of teacher talk.  Teacher’s questions should motivate learning, observation, and experimentation. Apart from these functions questions have the … More Instructional Methods: What is the importance of questioning?

Instructional Methods: What are the types of Questions?

Chapter Five Facilitation Methods 5a iii). Identify types of questions. There are many ways of classifying questions. Bloom (1966) categorized them as: Lower order and higher order questions. Lower order questions involve both restating facts and information memorized earlier in their raw state or comprehending the information and applying it to new situations. They can … More Instructional Methods: What are the types of Questions?

Instructional Methods: How does one carry out effective classroom questioning?

Chapter Five Facilitation Methods 5a iv). Explain how to carry out effective classroom questioning. For one to apply questioning technique adequately, the following should be observed. Clarity of expressions: use simple language to the level of the learners which will produce the right response. Question on what is within the experience, ability and background of the … More Instructional Methods: How does one carry out effective classroom questioning?

Instructional Methods: What are the qualities of good questions?

Chapter Five Facilitation Methods 5a(v). Identify qualities of good questions. meaningful and relevant definite and direct clear and coherent simple but challenging enough and thought provoking suitable to the age, level and ability of learners understandable and answerable concise and to the point interesting and within the experience of the learners  

Instructional Methods: What difference exists between expository-oriented and inquiry -oriented discussion?

Chapter Five Facilitation Methods 5b i) Distinguish between expository-oriented and inquiry-oriented discussion. In expository, the teacher defines the objectives of the lesson, explains learning activities, allows for the discussion, invites questions before concluding the activity. In inquiry discussion the teacher may not state the objectives, instead,he/she arranges for the discussion to take place and the … More Instructional Methods: What difference exists between expository-oriented and inquiry -oriented discussion?

Instructional Methods: The different types of discussions.

Chapter Five Facilitation Methods 5b (ii) Identify different types of discussions. Roundtable: this is a quite informal group, usually five or fewer participants who sit around a table and converse among themselves and with the audience. Normally, there is active learning and responding. It is also characterized by the effective exchange of ideas, opinions, and viewpoints. … More Instructional Methods: The different types of discussions.

Instructional Methods: The formation and organization of small groups.

Chapter Five Facilitation Methods 5b iii).Explain formation and organization of small groups. This involves forming groups from the whole class. The groups should consist of between 3 to 5 members for syndicate groups and 2 learners for quick reference as pair groups. These groups could be generated in one of the following ways: Random grouping: … More Instructional Methods: The formation and organization of small groups.

Instructional Methods: The project method

Chapter Five Facilitation Methods 5b iv).Discuss project method. This method aims at developing the child into a decent worthwhile citizen by actively involving one into the learning process and freeing and individual from traditional school environment that is usually marked with passivity and lacks keenness and real life. The project method is defined as  a … More Instructional Methods: The project method

Instructional Methods: What is the significance of small groups?

CHAPTER FIVE 5b v).Importance of small groups They provide an opportunity for all the participants to interact in a way that is not possible in a class situation. This makes learning more meaningful. They promote self-discipline and reduce classroom management problems (Stanford:1977) Learners learn the skill of listening as well as talking as they listen … More Instructional Methods: What is the significance of small groups?

Instructional Methods: What are the criteria for a good project?

Chapter Five Facilitation Methods 5c i).State the Criteria for a good project For a project to be good, it must satisfy these criteria: Relevancy: it should be relevant to the instructional objective and topic under study. Usefulness: it should result in a worthwhile end product fulfilling a long-standing need. Economical: it should be reasonable in … More Instructional Methods: What are the criteria for a good project?

Instructional Methods: Guidelines for preparation of a project

Chapter Five Facilitation Methods 5c ii). Preparation for a project In planning to use a project approach to teaching and learning, the following guidelines would be useful: The teacher/students should identify a project to work on. The teacher should discuss the project with the students so that they understand what it is. The learners should decide … More Instructional Methods: Guidelines for preparation of a project

Instructional Methods: The Role of the Teacher in the project.

Chapter Five Facilitation Methods 5c iii). Teacher’s role in a project In the project work the teacher: Helps the learners to identify suitable projects; Guides, supervises, advises the learners as they work on the project Monitors the progress of the learners Makes an evaluation guide for evaluating the project; Evaluates the project; and Records and … More Instructional Methods: The Role of the Teacher in the project.

Instructional Methods: What are some of the disadvantages of the project method?

Chapter Five Facilitation Methods 5c iv).Explain the disadvantages of project method It upsets the routine work of the school. This is especially the case with the case with fieldwork. It is not possible to apply all the subjects in a single project. Sometimes teachers end up emphasizing trivial points when they are trying to show … More Instructional Methods: What are some of the disadvantages of the project method?

Instructional Method: The tremendous signficance of field trips

Chapter Five Facilitation Methods 5c v).Describe field trips focusing on their importance, teacher/pupil preparation, individual or group responsibilities follow-up activities etc. Field trip and surveys These are visits or trips the learners make to the venues of learning. They are important because: They make instruction real and vivid because students go out in the field … More Instructional Method: The tremendous signficance of field trips

Instructional Method: What preparations are to be undertaken before going on a trip?

Chapter Five Facilitation Methods 5d i).Describe measures undertaken for the preparation of a trip  by both the Preparation for field trip Preparation will differ depending on the distance between the school and the place. But in cases where the place is far, the following should be followed to the letter Teacher identifying a relevant place … More Instructional Method: What preparations are to be undertaken before going on a trip?

Instructional Methods: What are the roles and responsibilities of students in the preparation process?

Chapter Five Facilitation Methods 5d ii).What are the roles and responsibilities of students in the preparation process? Just like he the teacher, the learners must prepare for the visit. Their preparation should include the following Understanding the objectives of the visit in advance Being clear on what to look for during the trip Preparing questions/questionnaires … More Instructional Methods: What are the roles and responsibilities of students in the preparation process?

Instructional methods: Discussing pure inquiry methods

Chapter Five Facilitation Methods 5d iii). Discuss pure inquiry methods citing the advantages, shortcomings, steps followed in its implementation, and the role of the teacher. This is a method which has an element of problem solving or discovery learning and is on the extreme of the thing continuum. It stresses on the experiences of the … More Instructional methods: Discussing pure inquiry methods

Instructional Methods: What does the term syllabus mean?

Chapter Six Planning for Teaching Specific objectives 6 a  (i).Define the term syllabus A Syllabus can be defined as a prescribed course of study or level. Effective teaching is influenced by how well a teacher has prepared for the lesson before teaching starts. It originates with one’s interaction with the syllabus and its interpretation, the ability … More Instructional Methods: What does the term syllabus mean?

Instructional Methods: The considerations one has to make before designing a syllabus.

Chapter Six Planning for Teaching  6a ii). Identify considerations made before designing a syllabus National goals of education: what are the goals of education in the country where secondary the syllabus will be used? The goals reflect the needs of the nation. Aims of education: this refers to general aims of the educational system and aims … More Instructional Methods: The considerations one has to make before designing a syllabus.

Instructional Methods: What are the factors one has to consider when preparing a scheme?

Chapter Six Planning for Teaching  6a iii). Discuss the factors to consider in scheming The availability of the  syllabus: This will specify the objectives and content to be achieved and taught respectively.It ensures the teacher  uses the relevant syllabus in teaching otherwise he/she can end up teaching outdated content. The  nature of learners : It … More Instructional Methods: What are the factors one has to consider when preparing a scheme?

Instructional Methods: What are schemes of work and what are their importance?

6a iv). Define “schemes of work” The scheme of work is a detailed, logical and sequential plan that interprets the syllabus into units that can be used in a teaching-learning institution. Alternative definition: It can also be defined as the breakdown of the syllabus into manageable units which could be covered in a specific period … More Instructional Methods: What are schemes of work and what are their importance?

Instructional Methods: Do you know how the scheming process works?

Chapter Six Planning for Teaching  6 b i). Describe the process of scheming. For effective scheming, it is suggested that the following processes be followed: Read the syllabus to know the content from which schemes of work will be planned. Calculate the approximate number of teaching periods in the term, taking into consideration holidays, school … More Instructional Methods: Do you know how the scheming process works?

Instructional Methods: What are the main features of a scheme of work?

Chapter Six Planning for Teaching  6b ii). Identify the main features of a scheme of work. Every scheme of work must have administrative information indicating: the subject, class, stream, term and year when the schemes will be operational. It also gives a title: “A scheme of work in Geography, Form 1B, 1st term, 2002”. Week: … More Instructional Methods: What are the main features of a scheme of work?

Instructional Methods: What are the main features of a scheme of work?

Chapter Six Planning for Teaching  6b ii). Identify the main features of a scheme of work. The title of the scheme which indicates  the subject, class, stream, term and year when the schemes will be operational .For example one can read as follows : “A scheme of work in Geography, Form 1B, 1st term, 2017”. … More Instructional Methods: What are the main features of a scheme of work?

Instructional Methods:What is a lesson plan and what is its signifcance?

Chapter Six Planning for Teaching 6 c i). Define “lesson plan”.    A lesson plan is a work plan showing clearly all activities that are going to take place during the lesson and the order (sequence) in which they are going to follow. A) Explain importance of lesson plan They are used as a basis … More Instructional Methods:What is a lesson plan and what is its signifcance?

Instructional Methods: What are the main features of a lesson?

Chapter Six Planning for Teaching 6c ii). Explain main features of a lesson A good lesson plan has a number of features: Administrative details: this shows the name and registration number of the student-teacher, school, subject, form, stream of the class, e.g. 1W, date when the lesson will be taught e.g. 2.00pm-2.40pm. Topic/sub-topic: this is … More Instructional Methods: What are the main features of a lesson?

Instructional Methods: The role of the syllabus and time table in the scheme of work.

Chapter Six Planning for Teaching 6d i).Why are the following important when making a scheme of work? A. syllabus Provides content and topics and sub-topics Gives specific objectives to be attained in teaching each sub-topic Gives a suggestion on resources to be used in teaching Gives time frame of how many lessons each topic will … More Instructional Methods: The role of the syllabus and time table in the scheme of work.

Instructional Methods: What does the term Motivation mean?

Chapter Seven Motivation in Teaching and Learning  7a i). Define the term motivation It is defined as “the general process by which behavior is initiated and directed towards a goal.” It is  further defined  as the degree of  desire to learn new things, to study, to be inquisitive about content taught and to cooperate with … More Instructional Methods: What does the term Motivation mean?

Instructional Methods: How do you explain the Maslow’s hierachy of needs?

Chapter Seven Motivation in Teaching and Learning  7a ii). Identify Maslow hierarchy of needs and relate them to education Maslow has argued that human being function in a hierarchy of needs which must be satisfied for their wellbeing. The first four levels of needs are called deficiency needs because when these needs are not met, … More Instructional Methods: How do you explain the Maslow’s hierachy of needs?

Instructional Methods: What are the different types of motivation and how can I differentiate them?

7b) i). Explain  different types of motivation using examples from the field of education There are different types of motivation according to human behavior: Intrinsic motivation: it is the motivation that stems from reinforcers that are inherent in the activity being performed. The learner (actor) enjoys the activity being performed. The learner (actor) enjoys the activity … More Instructional Methods: What are the different types of motivation and how can I differentiate them?

Instructional Methods: What are the factors that affect student motivation?

  Chapter Seven Motivation in Teaching and Learning  7bii). Explain factors which affect student’s motivation. Desire for teacher and peer approval: the students need the approval of those who matter to them, parents inclusive. This approval gives them a measure of personal worthiness and this increases their level of motivation. They strive to succeed in … More Instructional Methods: What are the factors that affect student motivation?

Instructional Methods: What is the importance of Motivation?

Chapter Seven Motivation in Teaching and Learning  7b iii). State the importance of motivation It is important to motivate the learners because motivation: Inculcates interest and enjoyment in the learning process; Arouses the learners’ curiosity; Creates in the learners the desire to learn more; Makes the learners anxious to learn;. Sustains the learner’s attention throughout … More Instructional Methods: What is the importance of Motivation?

Instructional methods: How does the teacher motivate and sustain the learner’s attention in a learning situation?

  Chapter Seven Motivation in Teaching and Learning  7 b iv).Discuss how a teacher can motivate and sustain the learner’s attention in a learning situation. How does the teacher motivate or/and sustain the learner’s attention in a learning situation? The teacher paying attention to the classroom physical appearance, e.g. making it neat, pleasant, comfortable, bright, … More Instructional methods: How does the teacher motivate and sustain the learner’s attention in a learning situation?

Instructional Methods: What does the term communication mean according to the various schools of thoughts?

Chapter Eight Communication in the Classroom 8a i). Define the term communication, according to the various schools of thought. There are two schools of thought that have emerged; process and semiotic schools. The first school of thought is derived from the field of social science while the latter is drawn from linguistics and the humanities. … More Instructional Methods: What does the term communication mean according to the various schools of thoughts?

Instructional Methods: What are the factors that affect communication?

Chapter Eight Communication in the Classroom 8a ii). State the factors that affect communication Communication is affected by: A purpose: this could be the social or functional purpose in which one is either trying to develop or modify relationship with others or is trying to give or obtain information. This explains why he/she is communicating. Context: … More Instructional Methods: What are the factors that affect communication?

Instructional Methods: What is a model and what is its importance and limitations?

Chapter Eight Communication in the Classroom 8b i). What is a model? A model is defined as a simplified description of a certain process, phenomenon or reality using diagrams and graphics, done consciously and in a planned manner. There are many models used in communication. A) Explain the importance of  models in communication They enable … More Instructional Methods: What is a model and what is its importance and limitations?

Instructional Methods: What are the models of communication?

Chapter Eight Communication in the Classroom 8b ii).Differentiate between transmission model/linear model and exchange model These models are linear in shape and are based on a stimulus –response principle. The message from the sender is a stimulus and the reaction to the message send is a response.Exchange model  is where communication is seen as occurring … More Instructional Methods: What are the models of communication?

Instructional Methods: How does Oral language contribute to effective communication?

  Chapter Eight  Communication in the Classroom 8b iii). State how  Oral language contribute to effective communication? A)Highlight three approaches which a teacher’s communication takes in the classroom: Demonstrating, showing or telling students how to do certain tasks. Discovering : Leaving learners to discover and examine experiences for themselves Discussing the task clarity and approach … More Instructional Methods: How does Oral language contribute to effective communication?

Instructional Methods: What are the common types of classroom communication?

Chapter Eight Communication in the Classroom 8c i). Briefly ,explain the  four common types of classroom communication: Exposition: This is where the speaker describes, informs, instructs or explains. Question and answer exchanges: These are used to test understanding, recall and are mainly closed with the learners giving one right answer. Discussion:This is where the participants explore … More Instructional Methods: What are the common types of classroom communication?

Instructional Methods: What are the models of classroom communication?

Chapter Eight Communication in the Classroom 8 c ii). Discuss three (3)  models of classroom communication Unilateral communication (Action model) This is the simplest form of communication and it involves a discrete event indicated by a speaker/teacher and terminated at a listener/student. Typical of this is a lecture given to an anonymous group of students. It … More Instructional Methods: What are the models of classroom communication?

Instructional Methods: What does communication consist of?

Chapter Eight Communication in the Classroom 8c iii). Describe the various elements and their interaction  in the  communication process. The source or a transmitter who has a message (ideas, thoughts, feelings, opinion, etc) which has to be communicated. The coding of the message where the transmitter must code the message to be transmitted  by   … More Instructional Methods: What does communication consist of?

Instructional Methods: How can a teacher improve verbal communication?

  Chapter Eight Communication in the Classroom 8d i). Explain  how a teacher can make  his /her speaking skills effective ? 1.By ensuring that the  speech : has an aim, clarity,and force. has content which  is exhaustive. humorous illustrative and ending with a forceful sentence.   2.By checking on the  tone of voice which through … More Instructional Methods: How can a teacher improve verbal communication?

Instructional Methods: Can you give a diagrammatic representation of the communication process?

Chapter Eight Communication in the Classroom 8 d ii). Give a diagrammatic representation of the communication process. Note the following: to encode is to formulate an idea in your mind as you process it before you can transmit it. To decode on the other hand is to find out the meaning of the message; the … More Instructional Methods: Can you give a diagrammatic representation of the communication process?

Instructional Methods: The various modes of communication

Chapter Eight Communication in the Classroom 8d iii). Explain the various modes of communication.  Communication as a process can be divided into various modes. Symbolic ( written): It involves the written word in form of notes, summaries, letters, abstracts, books etc. Verbal( oral): It is that communication which involves using the spoken mode of communication … More Instructional Methods: The various modes of communication

Instructional Methods: Barriers exist in effective classroom communication; what are they?

Chapter Eight  Communication in the Classroom 8d iv). Discuss barriers  to effective classroom communication In the communication process, a disturbance can arise at every step of the process which can lead to misunderstanding or no understanding at all. This becomes a barrier to the entire process. Among the things that hamper effective communication are: Physical … More Instructional Methods: Barriers exist in effective classroom communication; what are they?

Instructional Methods: What to consider when catering for individual differences.

Chapter Nine Providing for individual differences 9a i). Explain the sources of information a teacher will consult in order to understand his/her students The knowledge about learners can be derived from : Cumulative record folders found in the school office or in guidance and counseling department. This record contains the student’s academic background, family background, … More Instructional Methods: What to consider when catering for individual differences.