CHAPTER FIVE PREPARATION FOR TEACHING 5a i).Define schemes of work and explain their importance. Schemes of work A scheme of work can be defined as a breakdown of the syllabus into manageable units, which could be covered in a specific period of time. It could last for a week(s), month(s) or a whole year. What is … More History and Government: What are schemes of work and what are their importance?
CHAPTER FIVE 5 a iii). Describe the scheming process. The scheming process As a part of the scheming process the teacher should do the following: Obtain the most current History and Government syllabus. Have thorough knowledge of the syllabus requirements and its interpretation Do proper research into the area to be taught In order to … More History and Government:How does a teacher make a scheme of work?
CHAPTER FIVE 5a vii). Explain the importance of Instructional objectives. Instructional objectives are important because of the following: They provide a guide for choosing subject matter (content) to be taught, in designing appropriate teaching methods and selection of learning materials depending on the amount of content to be covered. They help in allocating teaching time. … More History and Government: What is the importance of Instructional objectives?
Chapter five Facilitation Methods 5a i).Identify and explain teaching methods which fall under the heuristic strategy of teaching e.g. questioning, discussion, debate, project, field trips etc. Questioning It is a carefully designed string of questions which lead the learner to arrive at an answer.” Questioning is at the core of any teaching “the teacher who … More Instructional Methods:Which are the teaching methods that fall under heuristic strategy of teaching?
Chapter five Facilitation Methods 5 a ii). Explain the purpose of questioning. According to Pollard(1997) asking questions provides immediate feedback on how participants are thinking and on what they know and it accounts for a high proportion of teacher talk. Teacher’s questions should motivate learning, observation, and experimentation. Apart from these functions questions have the … More Instructional Methods: What is the importance of questioning?
Chapter Five Facilitation Methods 5a iii). Identify types of questions. There are many ways of classifying questions. Bloom (1966) categorized them as: Lower order and higher order questions. Lower order questions involve both restating facts and information memorized earlier in their raw state or comprehending the information and applying it to new situations. They can … More Instructional Methods: What are the types of Questions?
Chapter Five Facilitation Methods 5a iv). Explain how to carry out effective classroom questioning. For one to apply questioning technique adequately, the following should be observed. Clarity of expressions: use simple language to the level of the learners which will produce the right response. Question on what is within the experience, ability and background of the … More Instructional Methods: How does one carry out effective classroom questioning?
Chapter Five Facilitation Methods 5a(v). Identify qualities of good questions. meaningful and relevant definite and direct clear and coherent simple but challenging enough and thought provoking suitable to the age, level and ability of learners understandable and answerable concise and to the point interesting and within the experience of the learners
Chapter Five Facilitation Methods 5b i) Distinguish between expository-oriented and inquiry-oriented discussion. In expository, the teacher defines the objectives of the lesson, explains learning activities, allows for the discussion, invites questions before concluding the activity. In inquiry discussion the teacher may not state the objectives, instead,he/she arranges for the discussion to take place and the … More Instructional Methods: What difference exists between expository-oriented and inquiry -oriented discussion?
Chapter Five Facilitation Methods 5b (ii) Identify different types of discussions. Roundtable: this is a quite informal group, usually five or fewer participants who sit around a table and converse among themselves and with the audience. Normally, there is active learning and responding. It is also characterized by the effective exchange of ideas, opinions, and viewpoints. … More Instructional Methods: The different types of discussions.
Chapter Five Facilitation Methods 5b iii).Explain formation and organization of small groups. This involves forming groups from the whole class. The groups should consist of between 3 to 5 members for syndicate groups and 2 learners for quick reference as pair groups. These groups could be generated in one of the following ways: Random grouping: … More Instructional Methods: The formation and organization of small groups.
Chapter Five Facilitation Methods 5b iv).Discuss project method. This method aims at developing the child into a decent worthwhile citizen by actively involving one into the learning process and freeing and individual from traditional school environment that is usually marked with passivity and lacks keenness and real life. The project method is defined as a … More Instructional Methods: The project method
CHAPTER FIVE 5b v).Importance of small groups They provide an opportunity for all the participants to interact in a way that is not possible in a class situation. This makes learning more meaningful. They promote self-discipline and reduce classroom management problems (Stanford:1977) Learners learn the skill of listening as well as talking as they listen … More Instructional Methods: What is the significance of small groups?
Chapter Five Facilitation Methods 5c i).State the Criteria for a good project For a project to be good, it must satisfy these criteria: Relevancy: it should be relevant to the instructional objective and topic under study. Usefulness: it should result in a worthwhile end product fulfilling a long-standing need. Economical: it should be reasonable in … More Instructional Methods: What are the criteria for a good project?
Chapter Five Facilitation Methods 5c ii). Preparation for a project In planning to use a project approach to teaching and learning, the following guidelines would be useful: The teacher/students should identify a project to work on. The teacher should discuss the project with the students so that they understand what it is. The learners should decide … More Instructional Methods: Guidelines for preparation of a project
Chapter Five Facilitation Methods 5c iii). Teacher’s role in a project In the project work the teacher: Helps the learners to identify suitable projects; Guides, supervises, advises the learners as they work on the project Monitors the progress of the learners Makes an evaluation guide for evaluating the project; Evaluates the project; and Records and … More Instructional Methods: The Role of the Teacher in the project.
Chapter Five Facilitation Methods 5c iv).Explain the disadvantages of project method It upsets the routine work of the school. This is especially the case with the case with fieldwork. It is not possible to apply all the subjects in a single project. Sometimes teachers end up emphasizing trivial points when they are trying to show … More Instructional Methods: What are some of the disadvantages of the project method?
Chapter Five Facilitation Methods 5c v).Describe field trips focusing on their importance, teacher/pupil preparation, individual or group responsibilities follow-up activities etc. Field trip and surveys These are visits or trips the learners make to the venues of learning. They are important because: They make instruction real and vivid because students go out in the field … More Instructional Method: The tremendous signficance of field trips
Chapter Five Facilitation Methods 5d i).Describe measures undertaken for the preparation of a trip by both the Preparation for field trip Preparation will differ depending on the distance between the school and the place. But in cases where the place is far, the following should be followed to the letter Teacher identifying a relevant place … More Instructional Method: What preparations are to be undertaken before going on a trip?
Chapter Five Facilitation Methods 5d ii).What are the roles and responsibilities of students in the preparation process? Just like he the teacher, the learners must prepare for the visit. Their preparation should include the following Understanding the objectives of the visit in advance Being clear on what to look for during the trip Preparing questions/questionnaires … More Instructional Methods: What are the roles and responsibilities of students in the preparation process?
Chapter Five Facilitation Methods 5d iii). Discuss pure inquiry methods citing the advantages, shortcomings, steps followed in its implementation, and the role of the teacher. This is a method which has an element of problem solving or discovery learning and is on the extreme of the thing continuum. It stresses on the experiences of the … More Instructional methods: Discussing pure inquiry methods