1.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: Can you describe the basis of phonetics and phonology?

Chapter I 1.1 Provide an description of  the basis of phonetics and phonology Introduction: The Focus of Phonetics and Phonology  The basis of phonetics and phonology Both phonetics and phonology deal with human speech sounds whose production is effected by a combination of three major features. The three features are referred to as the dimensions […]

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2.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: What are the different analytic approaches in the context of Phonetic and Phonological Analysis?

Chapter 2 2.1 Discuss the different analytic approaches in the context of Phonetic and Phonological Analysis Different Analytic Approaches Segmentation Speech is a continuum with few points in the stream which constitute a) Natural breaks – to breath in, swallow, and cough. b) Breaks that show an articulatory, auditory or acoustically steady state that could serve […]

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3.1 Can you outline the Phonetic features of a speech sound?

Chapter  3 3.1 Outline the Phonetic features of a speech sound Phonetic Analyses  Phonetic Analysis This refers to the analyses of sound production and perception. Phonetics analyses human speech sounds in terms of the following: The speech sounds’ production The speech sounds’ description The different possible sounds depending on the human vocal organs The speech […]

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4.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: Do you know the meaning of the term phonology & the structure and function of sounds?

Chapter 4 4.1 Define the term phonology and the structure and function of sounds Phonological Analyses Phonology Phonology is the study of human speech sounds in terms of the following: (i) The function of sounds. In every human language, sounds are used in words in order to convey meaning. In Chapter 1, we learned that […]

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6.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: Can you explain the types of air-streams as used in the production of human speech sounds?

Chapter 6 6.1 Explain the three main types of airstreams as used in the production of human speech sounds Analyses of Initiation 6.1 Descriptive elements These are elements of initiation, phonation, articulation (temporal, prosodic, metrical organization)   6.2. Classification of sounds segments by Initiation This classification is based on the – Airstream mechanisms and airflow […]

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7.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: How do various phonation types come about?

Chapter  7 7.1 Examine the phenomenon that creates the various phonation types that exist in language Analyses of Phonation  Phonation type The phonation types are as a result of the different states of the glottis. Phonation has to do with the generation of acoustic energy at the larynx by the action of the vocal folds. The […]

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8.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: Do you know the various places of articulation of human speech?

Chapter 8 8.1 Provide an explanation on the role of placement of speech organs in the articulation of  human speech Classification according to place of articulation  The Places of Articulation The place of articulation of a human speech sound is according to the distribution of speech organs along the vocal tract, from the larynx to the […]

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9.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: Can you highlight the various articulations that exist in the oral cavity?

Chapter 9 9.1 Highlight the various articulations that exist in the oral cavity Analysis of articulations in the oral cavity 1. Labial articulations Bilabial The two lips are involved e.g. /p, b/    Labio dental The lower lip and the upper teeth are involved e.g. / f, v/   2. Dent-alveolar articulations  Dental /ð, θ/ […]

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10.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: What articulations exist in the pharyngeo-laryngeal cavity?

Chapter 10 10.1 Provide an analysis of articulations in the pharyngeo-laryngeal cavity Analysis of articulations in the pharyngeo – laryngeal cavity  The pharyngeal articulations Pharyngeo – the articulations in the pharynx are called the pharengeal sounds. The pharynx is the cavity behind the mouth, from the back of the nose down to the larynx. The […]

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11.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: Can you examine how manner of articulation impacts language and sound?

Chapter 11 11.1 Examine how classification according to manner of articulation impacts language from stricture types to the various dimensions Classification according to manner of articulation Manner of articulation The manner of articulation is determined by the vocal organs. It is specified according to the degree of stricture i.e. – the degree to which the vocal […]

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12.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: What do you know about the analysis of the classification and articulation of vowels?

Chapter 12 12.1 Give an analysis of the classification and articulation of vowels. Analyses and classification of Vowels  Articulation of vowels Vowels are articulated with a stricture of open approximation they are normally voiced (voiced or creaky state). They are distinguished in terms of. The lip position This is the most obvious and most easily controlled […]

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13.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: What are co-articulations, articulations & their various articulating organs? How do they impact language?

Chapter 13 13.1 Highlight co-articulations, articulations and the various articulating organs Co-articulations, Articulations and the number of articulating organs Most articulations are single i.e. have only two articulating organs: one passive and the other active. We also have co-articulations namely. The sounds discussed so far have a single articulation – one active articulator and one passive articulator […]

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14.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: What is segmental and parametric analysis?

Chapter 14 14.1 Discuss the phonemenon of segmental and parametric analysis Segmental and parametric analysis  Introduction Parametric forms and phonological forms have much in common. In generative phonology the phonetic form is considered the output of the input of phonological forms. E.g. /e/ the phonetic form of this sound is dependent / determined by the […]

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15.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: Can you highlight the role played by phonemes and allophones in the English Language?

Chapter 15 15.1 Highlight the place of phoneme and allophones in the English Language Phonemes and phones Phoneme and the phone/allophone The historical perspective Def: the component of language that deals with phonemes and their possible combination There is no strict chronological description of phonological theory since each school of phonology could be seen as a […]

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16.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: Can you Dissect the concept of distinctive oppositions?

Chapter 16 16.1 Dissect the concept of distinctive oppositions Distinctive oppositions  Opposition Opposition is a central concept in phonology. Oppositions between phonemes are classified according to three different aspects of the phoneme’s phonetic qualities.  A phoneme’s relation to the entire phonetic system This is the phoneme’s opposition to other members of the phoneme system. It […]

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17.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: Can you breakdown the structure of a syllable?

Chapter 17 17.1 Breakdown the structure of the syllable The syllable  The structure of the syllable A syllable is defined as a minimal pulse of initiatory activity bounded by a momentary retardation of the initiator.  The phonological shape of the syllable Syllable Rhyme Onset Coda Nucleus Open and closed syllables Open – no termination i.e. […]

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18.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: Can you examine the phonetic and phonological features of stress?

Chapter 18 Examine the phonetic and phonological features of stress Stress 18.1 The phonetic and phonological features of stress An initiatory supra segmental feature of utterances that applies to whole syllables. It is produced when a speaker pushes more air out of the lungs for one syllable than she does for an adjacent one. This […]

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20.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: What is sonority? How does it impact the language?

Chapter 20 Explain the phenomenon that is sonority in the English language Sonority  The phonetic and phonological features of sonority is an articulatory prosodic feature. It is a sound’s loudness relative to that of the other sounds with the same length stress and pitch.  Calculating the degree of sonority a) It is closely linked in articulatory terms […]

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21.1 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: Are you able to Outline the articulatory process beyond the single segment

Chapter 21 21.1 Outline the articulatory process beyond the single segment Articulatory process beyond the single segment  Why beyond the single segment a) the relationship of a segment to a stressed vowel – choc ‘late b) When the sound is combined with others and it is word initial, medial or final. c) when morphemes are […]

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21.2 Phonetic & Phonological Analysis: Can you discuss the various locations of articulation of language?

Chapter 21 21.2 Discuss the various locations of articulation of language ARTICULATION: LOCATIONS We should remember various articulatory stricture types, representing the ‘vertical’ and ‘time’ (prolongable/non-prolongable) dimensions of articulation, and the location of the oral air-path, representing the “transverse’ dimension of articulation (median/lateral). Now we turn to the very important quasi-longitudinal dimension of articulation, namely, […]

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